Ruggedness: The Blessing of Bad Geography in Africa

@article{Nunn2012RuggednessTB,
  title={Ruggedness: The Blessing of Bad Geography in Africa},
  author={Nathan Nunn and Diego Puga},
  journal={Review of Economics and Statistics},
  year={2012},
  volume={94},
  pages={20-36}
}
Abstract We show that geography, through its impact on history, can have important effects on economic development today. The analysis focuses on the historic interaction between ruggedness and Africa's slave trades. Although rugged terrain hinders trade and most productive activities, negatively affecting income globally, rugged terrain within Africa afforded protection to those being raided during the slave trades. Since the slave trades retarded subsequent economic development, ruggedness… 
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