1. The present study investigates, by means of a combined enzyme immunoassay for rotaviruses and adenoviruses (EIARA), the occurrence of rotaviruses in stools and jejunal juices from 31 children with acute diarrhea and 18 with chronic diarrhea. 2. Stools from 8 acute cases contained rotaviruses (26%). In two of these cases rotaviruses were also detected in the jejunal juice. 3. In the chronic diarrhea group we identified rotaviruses in the stools of one patient and in the jejunal juice of another. 4. Some of the electropherotypes of the rotaviruses identified showed different patterns of RNA migration. 5. Abnormalities of the jejunal mucosa were characterized in 6 acute rotavirus-positive cases. No morphological or functional abnormalities of the intestinal mucosa were observed in the chronic diarrhea rotavirus-positive cases.