The structure of the ( √ 31 × √ 31)R ± 9 reconstructed phase on sapphire (0001) surface is investigated by means of a simulation based on the energy minimization. The interaction between Al adatoms is described with the semi-empirical manybody Sutton-Chen potential, corrected for the charge transfer between the metallic overlayer and the substrate. The interactions between the Al adatoms and sapphire substrate are described with a simple three-dimensional potential field which has the hexagonal periodicity of sapphire surface. Our energy analysis gave evidence that the structure which is observed at room temperature is in fact a frozen hightemperature structure. In accordance with the X-ray scattering, a hexagonal domain pattern separated by domain walls has been found. The Al adatoms, distributed in two monolayers, are ordered and isomorphic to metallic Al(111) in the domains and disordered in the domain walls. The main reason for the rotational reconstruction is the lattice misfit between the metallic Al and sapphire.