Rotational Head Kinematics in Football Impacts: An Injury Risk Function for Concussion

@article{Rowson2011RotationalHK,
  title={Rotational Head Kinematics in Football Impacts: An Injury Risk Function for Concussion},
  author={Steven Rowson and Stefan M. Duma and Jonathan Beckwith and Jeffrey J. Chu and Richard M. Greenwald and Joseph J. Crisco and Per Gunnar Brolinson and A. C. Duhaime and Thomas W. McAllister and Arthur Maerlender},
  journal={Annals of Biomedical Engineering},
  year={2011},
  volume={40},
  pages={1-13}
}
Recent research has suggested a possible link between sports-related concussions and neurodegenerative processes, highlighting the importance of developing methods to accurately quantify head impact tolerance. The use of kinematic parameters of the head to predict brain injury has been suggested because they are indicative of the inertial response of the brain. The objective of this study is to characterize the rotational kinematics of the head associated with concussive impacts using a large… 
Brain Injury Prediction: Assessing the Combined Probability of Concussion Using Linear and Rotational Head Acceleration
TLDR
A new injury metric, the combined probability of concussion, which computes the overall risk of concussion based on the peak linear and rotational accelerations experienced by the head during impact, is introduced.
Measuring Head Impact Exposure and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Humans
Helmeted sports such as football offer a unique opportunity to study head injury biomechanics in live human subjects. Impact reconstruction using game videos and real-time measurements of head
Head Impact Density: A Model To Explain the Elusive Concussion Threshold.
TLDR
The data suggest that the biomechanical threshold for concussion fluctuates downwardly with a greater impact magnitude and number with a return to pre-impact levels with time, suggesting physiological vulnerability to repeated head impacts.
The biomechanics of concussion in unhelmeted football players in Australia: a case–control study
TLDR
Qualitative analysis showed that the head was more vulnerable to lateral impacts and angular acceleration plays an important role in the pathomechanics of concussion, which has major ramifications in terms of helmet design and other efforts to prevent and manage concussion.
Voluntary Head Rotational Velocity and Implications for Brain Injury Risk Metrics.
TLDR
It is found that the head can tolerate high-velocity, low-acceleration rotational inputs too slow to produce substantial brain deformation, suggesting that the time regime over which angular velocities occur must be carefully considered for concussion prediction.
Using In-Mouth Sensors to Measure Head Kinematics in Rugby
Sports-related concussions were once thought to present only transient symptoms, but recent research has shown the potential for long-term neurological impairments. Previous research has instrumented
Concussion biomechanics, head acceleration exposure and brain injury criteria in sport: a review.
TLDR
An overview of concussion biomechanics, head acceleration exposure and brain injury criteria in sport is provided to provide an overview of biomechanical approaches and could play a key role in the development of concussion prevention strategies and techniques that mitigate the severity of HAE in sport.
A Review of On-Field Investigations into the Biomechanics of Concussion in Football and Translation to Head Injury Mitigation Strategies.
TLDR
New advances in head impact sensor technology allow for biomechanical measurements in helmeted and non-helmeted sports for a more complete understanding of concussion tolerance in different demographics, which will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury and human tolerance to head impact.
Accounting for Variance in Concussion Tolerance Between Individuals: Comparing Head Accelerations Between Concussed and Physically Matched Control Subjects
TLDR
It is found that concussed subjects experienced 93.8 more head impacts than physically matched controls, which provides further evidence that head impact data need to be considered at the individual level and that cohort wide assessments may be of little value in the context of concussion.
Concussion and the severity of head impacts in mixed martial arts
TLDR
The study recorded novel data for sub-concussive and concussive impacts in mixed martial arts, and the findings are significant in understanding the human tolerance to short-duration, high linear and angular accelerations.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 67 REFERENCES
Biomechanical properties of concussions in high school football.
TLDR
A similar threshold to concussion in adolescent athletes compared with their collegiate and professional counterparts suggests an equal concussion risk at all levels of play.
HEAD IMPACT SEVERITY MEASURES FOR EVALUATING MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY RISK EXPOSURE
TLDR
This study is the first to the authors' knowledge to quantify improvements in the sensitivity of a biomechanical measure to incidence of concussion when impact location is considered and develops a novel measure of head impact severity combining these measures into a single score that better predicts the incidence of concussions.
MEASUREMENT OF HEAD IMPACTS IN COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL PLAYERS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEAD IMPACT BIOMECHANICS AND ACUTE CLINICAL OUTCOME AFTER CONCUSSION
TLDR
It is suggested that football players are concussed by impacts to the head that occur at a wide range of magnitudes and that clinical measures of acute symptom severity, postural stability, and neuropsychological function all appear to be largely independent of impact magnitude and location.
Head acceleration is less than 10 percent of helmet acceleration in football impacts.
TLDR
It is shown that the response of the head and the helmet vary greatly and the in-helmet system matches theHead acceleration is less than 10 percent of helmet acceleration in football impacts; moreover, the HIT System is able to accurately measure the head acceleration.
Linear and angular head acceleration measurements in collegiate football.
TLDR
A large and unbiased data set was compiled by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players with accelerometers for a range of impact severities, and may advance the understanding of the mechanics of mild traumatic brain injury.
A new biomechanical assessment of mild traumatic brain injury. Part 2: Results and conclusions
TLDR
A new approach employing the maximum value of the global rate of energy dissipation has proven to provide the best correlation between concussion probability and head kinematics, providing a basis for a new HIC function, the Head Impact Power (HIP).
A six degree of freedom head acceleration measurement device for use in football.
TLDR
A six degree of freedom (6DOF) measurement device with 12 single-axis accelerometers that uses a novel algorithm to compute linear and angular head accelerations for each axis of the head is validated.
A proposed new biomechanical head injury assessment function - the maximum power index.
TLDR
A new hypothesis is propounded that the threshold for head injury will be exceeded if the rate of change of kinetic energy of the head exceeds some limiting value and a functional relation is proposed, which includes all six degrees of motion and directional sensitivity characteristics.
Frequency and location of head impact exposures in individual collegiate football players.
TLDR
The frequency of head impacts and the location on the helmet where the impacts occur are functions of player position and session type, as well as the possible effects of repeated subconcussive impacts in football.
Head impacts during high school football: a biomechanical assessment.
TLDR
This is the first to provide a biomechanical characterization of head impacts in an interscholastic football team across a season of play and these high school football athletes appeared to sustain greater accelerations after impact than their older counterparts did.
...
...