The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed by subpopulations of neuronal and glial cells throughout the brain and is activated by extracellular calcium [Formula: see text] . During development, the CaSR regulates neuronal cell growth and migration as well as oligodendroglial maturation and function. Emerging evidence suggests that in nerve terminals, CaSR is implicated in synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission. In this review, we analyze the roles attributed to CaSR in regulating diverse brain functions, including central regulation of body fluid composition and blood pressure. We also discuss the potential relevance of Ca(2+)-sensing in brain by other family C G protein-coupled receptors. Finally, evidence that the CaSR contributes to the pathogenesis of various brain disorders raises the possibility that pharmacological modulators of the CaSR may have therapeutic benefit.