In sheep, exposure of seasonally anestrous females to the male or its fleece results in activation of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and synchronized ovulation. The study of the neural pathways involved in this phenomenon, commonly named "male effect", show that the main olfactory system plays a critical role in the detection and the integration of the male odor. The accessory olfactory system participates in the perception of the ram odor but does not seem necessary for the endocrine response. According to the hypothesis that the neuroanatomical differences between the two olfactory systems could be associated with different functional roles, we investigated the importance of sexual experience and learning processes in the male effect. Our results showed that female responses depend on previous sexual experience. We also demonstrated that the LH response to male odor could result from an associative learning process. The aim of the present report was to summarize our current knowledge concerning the "male effect" and in particular to clarify the role of sexual experience and learning in the processes involved in this effect.