Role of tetracycline speciation in the bioavailability to Escherichia coli for uptake and expression of antibiotic resistance.

Tetracycline contains ionizable functional groups that manifest several species with charges at different locales and differing net charge; the fractional distribution of each species depends on pH-pKa relationship in the aqueous phase. In nature, these species interact with naturally abundant cations (e.g., Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) to form metal-tetracycline… CONTINUE READING