Erythropoietin Exacerbates Inflammation and Increases the Mortality of Histoplasma capsulatum-Infected Mice
The role of prostaglandins in the mediation of hypoxia-stimulated erythropoietin (Ep) production by cultured rat renal mesangial cells was examined. It was found that an increase in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production accompanied the rise in Ep due to hypoxia (2% O2). The hypoxia-stimulated increase in Ep production was abolished in the presence of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-5) M). When PGE2 (10(-6) M was added simultaneously with indomethacin, however, no diminution in hypoxia-stimulated Ep production was observed. Addition of arachidonic acid (AA, 10(-5) M), PGE2 (10(-6) M), or PGI2 (10(-4) M) enhanced Ep production under normoxic conditions (20% O2), while PGF2 alpha (10(-6) M) had no effect on Ep production. AA, PGE2, and PGI2 were found to stimulate adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate formation by the cultured mesangial cells. Enhancement of adenylate cyclase activity by forskolin (10(-5) M) also increased Ep production in the cell cultures. Our results suggest that hypoxia-stimulated Ep production by cultured mesangial cells is mediated by prostaglandins with subsequent stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity.