Role of paternal and maternal genomes in mouse development

@article{Barton1984RoleOP,
  title={Role of paternal and maternal genomes in mouse development},
  author={Sheila C. Barton and M. Azim Surani and Michael L. Norris},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1984},
  volume={311},
  pages={374-376}
}
There has been much speculation on whether mammalian eggs with two male pronuclei can develop normally. Eggs with two female pronuclei can sometimes develop as far as the 25-somite stage1–3 but with only very meagre extraembryonic tissues2,3. We suggested that the genome undergoes specific imprinting during gametogenesis3 and that some paternal genes may be necessary for normal development of the extraembryonic tissues3,4, in which only the maternal X chromosome remains active5–9. However, the… 
Genomic Imprinting in the Regulation of Mammalian Development
TLDR
Analysis of the development of androgenetic embryos or chimeras suggest that abnormal development may be because of the overgrowth of certain tissues such as the trophectoderm, as seen in hydatidiform mole and the costal rib cartilage in chimera.
Mouse parthenogenetic embryos with monoallelic H19 expression can develop to day 17.5 of gestation.
TLDR
The present results suggest that the cessation of H19 gene expression from the ng-allele causes extended development of the fetus and that functional defects in the placenta could be fatal for the ontogeny.
Parental origin effects in mice.
  • B. Cattanach
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of embryology and experimental morphology
  • 1986
TLDR
Findings provide some explanation for the observations that in mammals diploid parthenotes possessing two maternal genomes fail to survive and that, in man, embryos with two paternal chromosome sets are inviable, forming hydatidiform moles.
Differential activity of maternally and paternally derived chromosome regions in mice
TLDR
It is reported that animals with maternal duplication/paternal deficiency and its reciprocal for each of two particular chromosome regions show anomalous phenotypes which depart from normal in opposite directions, suggesting a differential functioning of gene loci within these regions.
Generation of monoparental embryos for investigation into genomic imprinting.
TLDR
These experiments laid the foundation for the discovery and exploration of this unique form of non-Mendelian mammalian gene regulation whereby expression of genes and hence phenotype were dictated by the parent from whom they where inherited, known as genomic imprinting.
Abnormal development of embryonic and extraembryonic cell lineages in parthenogenetic mouse embryos
TLDR
It is proposed that the failure of parthenogenones to develop to term is due to abnormal regulation of differentiation and proliferation in both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages, and the apparent tissue specific defects observed in parthenogetically activated mouse oocytes arise as a consequence of the functional importance of certain tissues (like the trophoblast) early in development.
Developmental potency of gametic and embryonic genomes revealed by nuclear transfer.
TLDR
The essential contribution of both the male and female genome to mammalian development was shown using the nuclear transfer method and genetic analysis, which further emphasize the need for identification and characterization of genes, which regulate early mammalian development.
Parental origin-specific developmental defects in mice with uniparental disomy for chromosome 12.
TLDR
Ind imprinted genes on chromosome 12 are essential for viability, the regulation of prenatal growth, and the development of mesodermal and neural crest-derived lineages in mice.
Influence of parental chromosomes on spatial specificity in androgenetic ↔ parthenogenetic chimaeras in the mouse
TLDR
It is demonstrated here that in post-implantation chimaeric fetuses, the expression of parental information results in spatial specificity so that parthenogenetic cells are confined to the embryo but the trophoblast consists almost entirely of androgenetic cells.
The non-viability of uniparental mouse conceptuses correlates with the loss of the products of imprinted genes
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the expression patterns of the Igf 2 and Igf2r genes in androgenetic and parthenogenetic conceptuses correlate with which parental alleles normally express them, implying that the imprint can be maintained in the absence of the other parent's genome for these genes.
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TLDR
It is reported here that the eggs which receive a male pronucleus develop to term but those with two female pronuclei develop only poorly after implantation, suggesting that the cytoplasm of activated eggs is fully competent to support development toterm but not if the genome is entirely of maternal origin.
Completion of mouse embryogenesis requires both the maternal and paternal genomes
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It is concluded that the maternal and paternal contributions to the embryonic genome in mammals are not equivalent and that a diploid genome derived from only one of the two parental sexes is incapable of supporting complete embryogenesis.
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TLDR
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