Correlation between 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/computed Tomography and Clinicopathological Features in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast.
The malignant biological behavior of breast cancer remains obscure on diagnostic images, although understanding the grade of such malignancy is important for selecting appropriate treatment. Therefore, malignancy grades in operable breast cancer were evaluated using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in a multicenter setting. We prospectively examined the features and prognosis of 344 patients (mean age ± SD: 58.0 ± 12.5 years) with clinical stages I–III breast cancer, who underwent surgical intervention without induction therapy between January 2006 and December 2011. Maximum standardized uptake values (maxSUV) obtained from whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT immediately before surgery were assessed to predict the malignant aggressiveness of tumors including the recurrence-free survival of the patients. Variations in maxSUV among institutions, which are limitations of PET assessments in multicenter studies, were adjusted using a phantom study. The median follow up period was 52 months. The patients were divided into groups according to cut-off maxSUV (≤3.0 vs. >3.0) values established from receiver operating characteristic analysis of recurrence (area under the curve = 0.713). A higher maxSUV was significantly associated with a higher T-factor (p < 0.0001), N-factor (p = 0.0049), nuclear grade (p < 0.0001), negative for estrogen (p = 0.0309), and progesterone receptors (p = 0.0063), positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (p = 0.0012), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0128), and vascular invasion (p = 0.0110). Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard regression model revealed high maxSUV and negative estrogen receptor status as significantly prognostic factors (p = 0.033 and p = 0.004, respectively). This study demonstrated that maxSUV on PET/CT as well as estrogen receptor status is useful to predict malignancy grades and the prognosis of patients with breast cancer.