Role of keratinocytes in allergic contact dermatitis

@article{Barker1992RoleOK,
  title={Role of keratinocytes in allergic contact dermatitis},
  author={Jonathan N.W.N. Barker},
  journal={Contact Dermatitis},
  year={1992},
  volume={26}
}
  • J. Barker
  • Published 1 March 1992
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Contact Dermatitis
Although once thought to play a purely structural role, there is increasing evidence that keratinocytes are actively involved in epidermal immune responses, including allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In vitro studies demonstrate that both urushiol and nickel sulphate induce cytokine production in cultured keratinocytes including molecules responsible for endothelial cell activation and lymphocyte chemotaxis and adhesion, In vivo, these same molecules are expressed in experimentally induced… 
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References

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Immune Regulation in Allergic and Irritant Skin Reactions
TLDR
Keratinocytes, which comprise approximately 90% of the total epidermal cell population, are not passive bystanders in the immune response and can transmit both positive and negative signals, thus, they may function as a modulator of the immune system, up or downregulating T-cell responses.
Epidermis and Lymphocyte Interactions During an Allergic Patch Test Reaction. Increased Activity of ETAF/IL-1, epidermal derived lymphocyte reactivity in persons with type IV allergy
TLDR
All patients with a positive patch test had an increased mixed skin lymphocyte reactivity compared with epidermis coming from a negative reaction, and the ETAF/IL-1 activity in patch test areas was significantly correlated with the clinical response.
Epidermis and lymphocyte interactions during an allergic patch test reaction. Increased activity of ETAF/IL-1, epidermal derived lymphocyte chemotactic factor and mixed skin lymphocyte reactivity in persons with type IV allergy.
TLDR
The ETAF/IL-1 activity in patch test areas was significantly correlated with the clinical response, and ELCF is not present in epidermis from noneczematous persons.
Keratinocyte expression of MHC class II antigens in allergic sensitization and challenge reactions and in irritant contact dermatitis.
TLDR
A battery of anti-class II monoclonal antibodies was used in an immunohistochemical study of the sequential changes in the allergic challenge reactions to dinitrochlorobenzene and nickel, the irritant response to anthralin, and the induction of sensitization to DNCB.
Modulation of keratinocyte-derived interleukin-8 which is chemotactic for neutrophils and T lymphocytes.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that activated human keratinocytes are capable of producing biologically active IL-8, and evidence that keratinocyte-derived products can play a key role in mediating the influx of T cells and neutrophils into the epidermis is provided.
Ia antigen expression on human epidermal Langerhans cells
TLDR
It is shown that epidermal Langerhans cells react positively by immunofluorescence with antisera raised in rabbits against human B lymphoblastoid cell line membrane glycoproteins, which indicates the presence of Ia-like antigens on these dendritic cells.
Modulation of leucocyte adhesion molecules, a T‐cell chemotaxin (IL‐8) and a regulatory cytokine (TNF‐α) in allergic contact dermatitis (rhus dermatitis)
TLDR
The results suggest that on exposure to poison ivy/oak, keratinocytes rapidly produce TNF‐α which leads to an early autoinduction of ICAM‐1, and later IL‐8, and there is also a paracrine‐mediated induction and augmentation of underlying endothelial cell ELAM‐2, VCAM‐ 1 and IC AM‐1.
Nickel‐keratinocyte interaction: a possible role in sensitization
TLDR
The results suggest that the percutaneous penetration of small amounts of Ni2+ can result in damage to keratinocytes and can initiate sensitization.
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