Role of intracellular‐free calcium in the cornified envelope formation of keratinocytes: Differences in the mode of action of extracellular calcium and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3

@article{Pillai1991RoleOI,
  title={Role of intracellular‐free calcium in the cornified envelope formation of keratinocytes: Differences in the mode of action of extracellular calcium and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3},
  author={Sreekumar Pillai and Daniel D. Bikle},
  journal={Journal of Cellular Physiology},
  year={1991},
  volume={146}
}
  • S. Pillai, D. Bikle
  • Published 1 January 1991
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of Cellular Physiology
Extracellular calcium (Cao) and the steroid hormone 1,25(OH)2D, induce the differentiation of human epidermal cells in culture. Recent studies suggest that increases in intracellular free calcium (Cai) levels may be an initial signal that triggers keratinocyte differentiation. In the present study, we evaluated cornified envelope formation, the terminal event during keratinocyte differentiation, and correlated it with changes in the Cai levels during differentiation of keratinocytes in culture… 
1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances the calcium response of keratinocytes
TLDR
It is concluded that 1,25(OH)2D3 maintains the CaR mRNA levels in cells grown in 0.03 mM Ca, thus maintaining their responsiveness to Cao and so ensuring their ability to differentiate in response to the calcium signal.
Intracellular free calcium and growth changes in single human keratinocytes in response to vitamin D and five 20-epi-analogues
TLDR
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  • D. Bikle, Y. Oda, Z. Xie
  • Biology, Medicine
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  • 2004
Changes in calcium responsiveness and handling during keratinocyte differentiation. Potential role of the calcium receptor.
TLDR
The keratinocyte contains a CaR that regulates both the initial release of Cai from intracellular stores and the subsequent increase in calcium flux through nonspecific calcium channels, which may facilitate the maintenance of the high Cai required for differentiation.
Localization and quantitation of calcium pools and calcium binding sites in cultured human keratinocytes
TLDR
Differences in the distribution of free ionic calcium and organelle‐bound calcium are revealed and the localization pattern of calcium in cultured keratinocytes may reflect the hyperproliferative state of these cells, as in psoriatic epidermis, and the absence of a normal permeability barrier in these submerged cultures.
Vitamin D regulated keratinocyte differentiation: Role of coactivators
TLDR
These studies suggest that at least part of the sequential activation of genes required during keratinocyte differentiation is regulated by the change (availability) of these different coactivator complexes.
Endogenous prostaglandin E2 modulates calcium-induced differentiation in human skin keratinocytes.
Calcium- and vitamin D-regulated keratinocyte differentiation
Growth and differentiation stimuli induce different and distinct increases in intracellular free calcium in human keratinocytes
TLDR
In normal human keratinocytes an increase in [Ca2+]i appears to be an early event in differentiation, whether induced by calcium or TPA, but not during growth inhibition without differentiation.
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References

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TLDR
Specific Cao and Cai determine the expression of individual markers of keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and may account for the importance of the Ca2+ gradient for maintaining regulated growth and differentiation of the epidermis in vivo.
Regulation of terminal differentiation of cultured mouse epidermal cells by 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
TLDR
Of several derivatives of vitamin D3 examined, 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 was the most potent in inducing epidermal differentiation and markedly stimulated formation of a cornified envelope, a structure with chemically stable cross-links formed beneath the plasma membrane.
Early signals for keratinocyte differentiation: role of Ca2+-mediated inositol lipid metabolism in normal and neoplastic epidermal cells.
TLDR
The results demonstrate that the second messenger system for Ca2+-mediated keratinocyte differentiation may be through a direct effect on phospholipase C activity, and suggest that both protein kinase C activation, elevation of intracellular calcium and PIP turnover were important components of the signal for epidermal differentiation.
Effect of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the morphologic and biochemical differentiation of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes grown in serum-free conditions
TLDR
It appears that 1α,25-(OH) 2 -D 3 is a potent inhibitor of keratinocyte proliferation as well as a stimulator of epidermal terminal differentiation.
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TLDR
Normal and neoplastic keratinocytes differ in the level of Cai under low calcium conditions and in their response to elevated external calcium, which may be important in determining their potential for terminal differentiation.
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TLDR
A tentative model is provided to demonstrate potential mechanisms by which 1,25(OH)2D3-induced changes in intracellular calcium could regulate epidermal differentiation.
Expression of murine epidermal differentiation markers is tightly regulated by restricted extracellular calcium concentrations in vitro
TLDR
In vitro results suggest that the Ca2+ environment is a fundamental regulator of expression of epidermal differentiation markers and provide an explanation for the existence of theCa2+ gradient in vivo.
1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D increases hepatocyte cytosolic calcium levels. A potential regulator of vitamin D-25-hydroxylase.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D increases hepatocyte cytosolic calcium, and that these increments in cytosol calcium may regulate some of the hepatic actions of the vitamin D metabolite.
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