Role of glutamine, as free or dipeptide form, on muscle recovery from resistance training: a review study

  title={Role of glutamine, as free or dipeptide form, on muscle recovery from resistance training: a review study},
  author={Raquel Raizel and J{\'u}lio Tirapegui},
BackgroundGlutamine plays a key role in several essential metabolic processes and is an important modulator of the heat shock protein (HSP) response, a crucial mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis and to promote cell resistance to injury and death. This review summarized the effects of free l-glutamine or the dipeptide l-alanyl-l-glutamine upon muscle injury and inflammation, as well as muscle recovery from resistance training.Main body of the abstractThe 70-kDa HSP (HSP70) expression is… 

Glutamine Regulates Skeletal Muscle Immunometabolism in Type 2 Diabetes

It is demonstrated that a systemic increase in glutamine levels in a mouse model of obesity improves insulin sensitivity and restores glucose homeostasis, indicating that glutamine supplementation may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent or delay the onset of insulin resistance in obesity.

Insulin degludec and glutamine dipeptide modify glucose homeostasis and liver metabolism in diabetic mice undergoing insulin-induced hypoglycemia

GdiP and the insulins improved the IIH, although to a small extent, and caution is recommended, however, with respect to the use of GdiP because of its increasing effects on serum triglycerides and AST plus ALT activities.

Does Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) Supplementation Attenuate Muscle Damage Markers and Soreness after Resistance Exercise in Trained Males? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Different outcomes for post-exercise responses may suggest that BCAAs supplementation can attenuate muscle damage and ameliorate muscle soreness after resistance exercise in trained males.

Comprehensive Circulatory Metabolomics in ME/CFS Reveals Disrupted Metabolism of Acyl Lipids and Steroids

An extensive metabolomics analysis on the plasma of 52 female subjects delivered data for about 1750 blood compounds spanning 20 super-pathways, subdivided into 113 sub-pathway of lipids, pointing to a few disrupted metabolic pathways containing many unexplored compounds.

The effect of intense physical activity session with glutamine supplementation on selected factors of wrestlers' immune system

The results of this study showed that glutamine supplementation during strenuous exercise has beneficial effects on the immune system of athletes.



Determination of the anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of l-glutamine and l-alanine, or dipeptide, supplementation in rats submitted to resistance exercise

It is demonstrated that chronic oral l-glutamine treatment (given with l-alanine or as dipeptide) following progressive RE induces cyprotective effects mediated by HSP70-associated responses to muscle damage and inflammation.

L-glutamine supplementations enhance liver glutamine-glutathione axis and heat shock factor-1 expression in endurance-exercise trained rats.

Oral administration with DIP and GLN+ALA supplements in endurance-trained rats improve liver glutamine-GSH axis and modulate HSF1 pathway, suggesting a redox state protection.

Nonnutritive effects of glutamine.

  • E. Roth
  • Biology
    The Journal of nutrition
  • 2008
Glutamine deprivation reduces proliferation of lymphocytes, influences expression of surface activation markers on lymphocytes and monocytes, affects the production of cytokines, and stimulates apoptosis, and glutamine administration seems to have a positive effect on glucose metabolism in the state of insulin resistance.

Skeletal muscle heat shock protein 70: diverse functions and therapeutic potential for wasting disorders

The therapeutic benefit of HSP70 upregulation in skeletal muscle has been established in rodent models of muscle injury, muscle atrophy, modified muscle use, aging, and muscular dystrophy, which highlights H SP70 as a key therapeutic target for the treatment of various conditions which negatively affect skeletal muscle mass and function.

Effects of supplementation with free glutamine and the dipeptide alanyl‐glutamine on parameters of muscle damage and inflammation in rats submitted to prolonged exercise

It is concluded that supplementation with free L‐glutamine and the dipeptide LL‐alanyl‐LL‐glUTamine represents an effective source of glutamine, which may attenuate inflammation biomarkers after periods of training and plasma levels of CK and the inflammatory response induced by prolonged exercise.

l-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise

The results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation.

l-glutamine and l-alanine supplementation increase glutamine-glutathione axis and muscle HSP-27 in rats trained using a progressive high-intensity resistance exercise.

It is demonstrated that l-glutamine supplemented with l-alanine, in both a free or dipeptide form, improve the GLN-GSH axis and promote cytoprotective effects in rats submitted to high-intensity RE training.