Role of fungi in the biogeochemical fate of depleted uranium

  title={Role of fungi in the biogeochemical fate of depleted uranium},
  author={Marina A. Fomina and John M. Charnock and Stephen Hillier and Rebeca Alvarez and Francis R. Livens and Geoffrey Michael Gadd},
  journal={Current Biology},
Summary The testing of depleted uranium (DU; a 97.25% U:0.75% Ti alloy) ammunition and its use in recent war campaigns in Iraq (1991 and 2003) and the Balkans (1995 and 1999) has led to dispersion of thermodynamically unstable DU metal into the environment [1–3]. Although less radioactive, DU has the same chemotoxicity as natural uranium and poses a threat to human populations [1]. Uranium tends to form stable aqueous complexes and precipitates with organic ligands [4], suggesting that living… Expand
Microbial transformations of actinides in the environment
The diversity of microorganisms is still far from understood, although many examples of the microbial biotransformation of stable, pollutant and radioactive elements, involving Bacteria, Archaea andExpand
Uranium and Fungi
Free-living and symbiotic fungi can interact with, and transform certain uranium species, while general metabolic activities such as decomposition of organic substances and dissolution of rocks andExpand
Microbially Assisted Leaching of Uranium—A Review
Due to depletion of high-grade deposits of uranium and generation of large quantities of tailings produced by mining and metallurgical activities, there is a need to find an economical way to recoverExpand
Biogeochemical controls on the corrosion and fate of depleted uranium
The Biogeochemical Controls on the Corrosion and Fate of Depleted Uranium Stephanie Handley-Sidhu Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the nuclear fuel industry and is used in antitankExpand
To direct the function of subsurface microbial communities, and to achieve the aims of bioremediation and natural attenuation, genome-enabled studies are needed to directly link the phylogenetic structure with the metabolic activity of U(VI)-transforming microbial groups in situ. Expand
Geochemical and Microbial Controls of the Decomposition of Depleted Uranium in the Environment: Experimental Studies using Soil Microorganisms
The decomposition of depleted uranium (DU) alloy in the presence of microorganisms characteristic of clay-rich soils has been studied using microcosm experiments. To assess the possible roles ofExpand
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It appears that data recently published on these elements are erroneous, in part because of use of an inappropriate analytical method; and in partBecause of apparent contamination by soil particles resulting in elevated levels of thorium and REE. Expand
Lead Transformation to Pyromorphite by Fungi
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Soil Ecosystem Responses to Depleted Uranium Contamination
Military operations of the past two decades have used depleted uranium missiles and equipment, which have contaminated the soils of war-torn areas. Once in the soil, the metal corrodes to oxidizedExpand
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The peculiar mechanisms leading to calcite biomineralization by fungi remain incompletely understood and more research is necessary, posing new exciting questions linked to microbial biominalization processes. Expand


Geomycology: biogeochemical transformations of rocks, minerals, metals and radionuclides by fungi, bioweathering and bioremediation.
  • G. Gadd
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Mycological research
  • 2007
This article seeks to emphasize the fundamental importance of fungi in several key areas including organic and inorganic transformations and element cycling, rock and mineral transformations, bioweathering, mycogenic mineral formation, fungal-clay interactions, metal-fungal interactions, and the significance of such processes in the environment and their relevance to areas of environmental biotechnology such as bioremediation. Expand
Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview.
Depleted uranium (DU), a waste product of uranium enrichment, has several civilian and military applications. It was used as armor-piercing ammunition in international military conflicts and wasExpand
Phosphate based immobilization of uranium in an oxidizing bedrock aquifer
The unmined Coles Hill U deposit of south central Virginia represents a natural setting where U is stabilized by phosphate mineral precipitation in an oxidizing bedrock aquifer. Drill cores from theExpand
Chemical and mineralogical transformations caused by weathering in anti-tank DU penetrators ("the silver bullets") discharged during the Kosovo war.
The Djakovica dart shows evident oxidation and leaching processes, progressively releasing mobile uranium forms, as uranium will be progressively dispersed far from the impact sites, at a rate controlled by the presence of effective fixing mechanisms, it is necessary to maintain long term geochemical control of water pollution within the battlefield surroundings. Expand
Oxidation states of uranium in depleted uranium particles from Kuwait.
Environmental or health impact assessments for areas affected by DU munitions should take into account the presence of respiratory UO(2), U(3)O(8) and even UO (3) particles, their corresponding weathering rates and the subsequent mobilisation of U from oxidized DU particles. Expand
Corrosion of Depleted Uranium in an Arid Environment: Soil-Geomorphology, SEM/EDS, XRD, and Electron Microprobe Analyses
Corrosion of anthropogenic uranium in natural environments is not well understood, but is important for determining potential health risks and mobility in the environment. A site in the southwesternExpand
Cutaneous respiration and the origin of the modern Amphibia
It seems very likely that the modern amphibians are descended from the gymnarthrids, or from some similar, closely related group of microsaurs, if the microsaur-lissamphibian line of evolution diverged from the labyrinthodont-reptilian line at a very early stage in tetrapod history. Expand
Discovery of the first Asian plethodontid salamander
The discovery of the first Asian plethodontid salamander, from montane woodlands in southwestern Korea, is reported, which differs osteologically from putative relatives, especially with respect to the tongue (attached protrusible) and the derived tarsus. Expand
The Origin of the Lungless Salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae)
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This work reports lunglessness in another group of tetrapods, the poorly known tropical caecilians, and describes Typhlonectes eiselti, a lungless, aquatic caecilian from South America known only from the single holotype specimen, NMW 9144. Expand