Role of endogenous sleep-wake and analgesic systems in anesthesia.

Abstract

Classical anesthetics of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A))-enhancing class (e.g., pentobarbital, chloral hydrate, muscimol, and ethanol) produce analgesia and unconsciousness (sedation). Dissociative anesthetics that antagonize the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (e.g., ketamine, MK-801, dextromethorphan, and phencyclidine) produce… (More)
DOI: 10.1002/cne.21685

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