Functional Plasticity in Childhood Brain Disorders: When, What, How, and Whom to Assess
The impact of parenting and motor skills on the development of cognitive, language, and daily living skills was examined in 165 children (91 with spina bifida, SB), from 6–36 months of age. Motor scores significantly influenced cognitive, language, and daily living skills. Higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels of development and faster growth in cognitive and language skills for both groups. However, on daily living skills, an interaction among parenting, motor skills and group revealed that higher quality parenting was associated with higher levels and faster rates of growth only for the typically developing children with better motor skills. Early parenting style was found to have a directional impact (mother to child) on child development by 26 months of age. Results are discussed relative to intervention considerations for children with SB. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.