The role of cyclic nucleotides in mediating hormonally responsive adenylate cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase was examined in vivo and in vitro when pseudopregnant rats were injected with hCG. Intracellular ovarian levels of cAMP increased, as expected, but no change in cGMP concentrations was observed. However, both cGMP and cAMP activated ovarian CDPK holoenzyme in vitro but cGMP had a lower affinity. The subunits of hCG were without effect. Even though cGMP and cAMP dissociate partially purified ovarian CDPK holoenzyme in vitro, the receptor sites of the regulatory subunit of CDPK would appear to be relatively specific for cAMP. Moreover, cGMP probably does not mediate hCG action in vivo.