In the course of an investigation of 60 patients with clomiphene-resistant anovulation, 35 cases of androgenic hyperacitvity were detected. Fractionation of urinary 17-ketosteroids (17-KS) by a rapid method of chromatography proved to be both practical and reliable for the detection and classification of androgenic disorders of adrenal, ovarian, or mixed origin. In contrast to the total 17-KS values, the fractionated 17-KS values were elevated in all but one of these cases. Following dexamethasone suppression, individual 17-KS showed significant decreases in both adrenal and mixed adrenal-ovarian cases, in contrast to ovarian cases in which no significant change was detected. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) stimulation combined with dexamethasone suppression did not cause any significant change in individual 17-KS values in the adrenal group, whereas both the mixed adrenal-ovarian and ovarian cases showed significant increases. Of 34 treated patients, 22 conceived, 21 had normal deliveries, and 1 aborted. Twelve became ovulatory. Eleven patients were treated with dexamethasone, nineteen with combined dexamethasone and clomiphene, two with dexamethasone and HCG, and two with HCG only.