Role of androgen receptor in the progression of human prostate tumor cells to androgen independence and insensitivity

@article{Kokontis2005RoleOA,
  title={Role of androgen receptor in the progression of human prostate tumor cells to androgen independence and insensitivity},
  author={John M. Kokontis and Stephen Hsu and Chih-Pin Chuu and Mai T. Dang and Junichi Fukuchi and Richard A. Hiipakka and Shutsung Liao},
  journal={The Prostate},
  year={2005},
  volume={65}
}
Various studies have implicated the androgen receptor (AR) in the progression of androgen‐dependent human prostate cancer cells to androgen‐independent and androgen‐insensitive phenotypes, but the exact role of AR in progression is unclear. 
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TLDR
It is predicted that understanding the pathways that lead to the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer will pave the way to effective therapies for these, at present, untreatable cancers. Expand
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Almost all prostate cancer patients become resistant to therapy that blocks androgen-mediated cell proliferation. The key to this resistance may lie in expression of the androgen receptor itselfExpand
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TLDR
It is demonstrated that the AR is critical for proliferation of androgen-refractory cells, even in the absence of androgens. Expand
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It is hypothesized that an “ARE decoy,” a double‐stranded oligonucleotide containing the same DNA sequence as ARE, can inhibit prostatic proliferation by competitive inhibition of AR transcriptional activity. Expand
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It is argued that declining rather than high levels of androgens probably contribute more to human prostate carcinogenesis and that androgen supplementation would probably lower the incidence of the disease. Expand
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TLDR
A majority of recurrent prostate cancers express high levels of the androgen receptor and two nuclear receptor coactivators, transcriptional intermediary factor 2 and steroid receptors coactivator 1, and this work provides a molecular basis for this activation and suggests a general mechanism for recurrent prostate cancer growth. Expand
Molecular characterization of an improved vector for evaluation of the tumor suppressor versus oncogene abilities of the androgen receptor
There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that the function of the ligand‐occupied androgen receptor (AR) within the nuclei of normal prostatic epithelial cells acts as a tumor suppressorExpand
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TLDR
The results suggest that AR is transcriptionally active in recurrent CaP and can increase cell proliferation at the low circulating levels of androgen reported in castrated men. Expand
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TLDR
The data now demonstrate the oncogenic potential of steroid receptors and implicate altered AR function and receptor coregulator interaction as critical determinants of prostate cancer initiation, invasion, and metastasis. Expand
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TLDR
This study shows that inhibition of AR expression by antisense AR ODNs may be a promising new approach for treatment of advanced human prostate cancer. Expand
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