Role of YAP/TAZ in mechanotransduction

@article{Dupont2011RoleOY,
  title={Role of YAP/TAZ in mechanotransduction},
  author={Sirio Dupont and Leonardo Morsut and Maria Aragona and Elena Enzo and Stefano Giulitti and Michelangelo Cordenonsi and Francesca Zanconato and Jimmy le Digabel and Mattia Forcato and Silvio Bicciato and Nicola Elvassore and Stefano Piccolo},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2011},
  volume={474},
  pages={179-183}
}
Cells perceive their microenvironment not only through soluble signals but also through physical and mechanical cues, such as extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness or confined adhesiveness. By mechanotransduction systems, cells translate these stimuli into biochemical signals controlling multiple aspects of cell behaviour, including growth, differentiation and cancer malignant progression, but how rigidity mechanosensing is ultimately linked to activity of nuclear transcription factors remains… 
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TLDR
This study shows that physical and mechanical cues regulate cell behaviour through the activation of YAP and TAZ, and that, in addition to Hippo signalling, these transcription factors can be activated through a pathway that relies on RHO activity and cytoskeletal tension.
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TLDR
YAP and TAZ mechanotransduction is critical for driving stem cell behaviour and regeneration, and it sheds new light on the mechanisms by which aberrant cell mechanics is instrumental for the onset of multiple diseases, such as atherosclerosis, fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, inflammation, muscular dystrophy and cancer.
Regulation and mechanism of YAP/TAZ in the mechanical microenvironment of stem cells
TLDR
The present review summarizes the current knowledge of the mechanisms involved in YAP/TAZ regulation on the physical and mechanical microenvironment, as well as its potential effects on stem cell differentiation.
Mechanoregulation of YAP and TAZ in Cellular Homeostasis and Disease Progression
TLDR
The biomechanical cues in the tissue microenvironment are summarized and an update on the roles of YAP/TAZ in mechanotransduction in various physiological and pathological conditions is provided.
Response to Mechanical Cues by Interplay of YAP/TAZ Transcription Factors and Key Mechanical Checkpoints of the Cell: A Comprehensive Review.
TLDR
In this review, the biological functions of the YAP/TAZ pathway and its contribution to the mechanotransduction and cell behavior regulation in response to the mechanical cues have been summarized.
mechanoresponses of the Hippo pathway.
TLDR
The Ras-related GTPase RAP2 is identified as a key intracellular signal transducer that relays ECM rigidity signals to control mechanosensitive cellular activities through YAP and TAZ.
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References

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TLDR
It is shown that TAZ is phosphorylated by the Lats tumor suppressor kinase, a key component of the Hippo pathway, whose alterations result in organ and tissue hypertrophy in Drosophila and contribute to tumorigenesis in humans.
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TLDR
It is demonstrated that in mammalian cells, the transcription coactivator YAP (Yes-associated protein), is inhibited by cell density via the Hippo pathway, and YAP overexpression regulates gene expression in a manner opposite to cell density, and is able to overcome cell contact inhibition.
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TLDR
The current data provide compelling evidence for the importance of the mechanical features of the microenvironment, and suggest that mechanotransduction in these cells occurs through a FAK–Rho–ERK signaling network with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) as a bottleneck through which much of the response to mechanical stimuli is regulated.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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Cells sense their physical surroundings through mechanotransduction — that is, by translating mechanical forces and deformations into biochemical signals such as changes in intracellular calcium
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TLDR
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