Standard treatment for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer has traditionally involved lobectomy. Historical data that demonstrates suboptimal results for sublobar resection compared to lobectomy have been challenged in recent years with retrospective data for patients with T1a disease. For patients who are not candidates for lobectomy, options for sublobar resection include wedge resection or anatomic segmentectomy. Segmentectomy has long been held to be a better cancer operation than wedge resection, and its role in treating early-stage lung cancer remains controversial in patients who are candidates for lobectomy. A review of available literature involving segmentectomy and possible predictors of failure for segmentectomy was performed in an attempt to clarify the role of segmentectomy for early-stage lung cancer. Current evidence is conflicting regarding the optimal scenario for sublobar resection with segmentectomy. Two large-scale randomized trials are currently addressing the question. In the meantime, certain preoperative and intraoperative considerations should be taken into account when considering segmentectomy for the treatment of early-stage non–small cell lung cancer.