Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a common autosomal recessive disorder, caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR gene expression is tightly controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory factors, resulting in complex spatial and temporal expression patterns. Here, we describe an overview of the findings about the contribution of ncRNAs, especially miRNAs, in physiological CFTR gene expression and in CF. Determination of mechanisms governing its expression is essential for developing new CF therapies. ncRNAs, including lncRNAs and miRNAs, could also contribute to CF progression and severity and their dysregulation in CF opens new perspectives for patient followup and treatment.