Role of Lipid in Sulfite-dependent Propofol Dimerization

  title={Role of Lipid in Sulfite-dependent Propofol Dimerization},
  author={Max T. Baker and Marc S. Gregerson and Mohamed Naguib},
Background: During long-term intravenous infusions, sulfite in sulfite-containing propofol emulsions can cause the peroxidation of lipid and dimerization of propofol. This study evaluated the role of lipid in sulfite-dependent propofol dimerization by determining the effects of individual fatty acids in soybean oil emulsion and peroxidized lipids in a model system. Methods: Individual fatty acids, stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2), linolenic (18:3), and arachidonic (20:4), were… 
Propofol: The Challenges of Formulation
Propofol is a potent lipophilic anesthetic that was initially formulated in Cremophor El for human use but was ultimately brought to market as 1% propofol formulated in 10% soybean oil emulsion due to concerns of hyperlipidemia-related side effects.
Nanostructured Lipid Carrier of Propofol: a Promising Alternative to Marketed Soybean Oil–Based Nanoemulsion
Propofol NLC appeared to be clinically useful as a potential carrier for propofol delivery and was found stable in long-term storage under room temperature and suppressed microbial growth to a greater extent as compared to the marketed formulation.
Propofol Protects Hepatic L02 Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis via Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases Pathway
It is demonstrated that propofol protects hepatic L02 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis, partly through activating the MEK-ERK pathway and further suppressing Bad and Bax expression.
Propofol: An Immunomodulating Agent
The antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties of propofol may have beneficial effects in patients with sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome.


Sulfite Supported Lipid Peroxidation in Propofol Emulsions
Results show that sulfite supports the peroxidation of lipids in soybean oil emulsions and propofol functions to partially inhibit these processes.
Free radical and drug oxidation products in an intensive care unit sedative: Propofol with sulfite*
Sulfite from the metabisulfite additive in propofol emulsion creates an oxidative environment when these emulsions are exposed to air during a simulated intravenous infusion, which results in prop ofol dimerization and emulsion yellowing, the latter of which can be attributed to the rapid formation of the reactive sulfite free radical.
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The lipid hydroperoxide content of some lipid emulsions may represent a clinically significant risk to premature infants, particularly those with preexisting lung disease.
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Sulfite initiated the peroxidation of linoleic acid and linolenic acid emulsions via a free radical mechanism. Peroxidation of these fatty acids required oxygen and sulfite and occurred with
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