Role of K vitamins in the regulation of tissue calcification

  title={Role of K vitamins in the regulation of tissue calcification},
  author={Cees Vermeer and Lavienja Braam},
  journal={Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism},
urated and three saturated isoprenoid residues, and it is exclusively synthesized in green plants. Menaquinones (vitamin K2) comprise a spectrum of related forms generally designated as menaquinone-n (MK-n), where n is the number of isoprenyl groups that are all unsaturated. Bacteria synthesize the higher menaquinones, with MK-7 through MK-10 as the most common forms. MK4 is mainly found in animal products (meat, dairy) and originates from conversion of both K1 and K3 (menadione; a synthetic… 

Vitamin K and bone health

  • S. Bügel
  • Medicine, Biology
    Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • 2003
Recent data suggest that the requirement for vitamin K in relation to bone health might be higher, compared with the current dietary recommendation, based on saturation of the coagulation system.

The physiology of vitamin K nutriture and vitamin K‐dependent protein function in atherosclerosis

The development of improved methods for analyzing vitamin K has shed considerable insight into the relative importance of different vitamin K forms in the diet and their contribution to hepatic vs. non‐hepatic tissue.

Vitamin K and osteoporosis: Myth or reality?

Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins in Skeletal Development and Disease

Osteocalcin, also termed bone Gla-protein, is the most abundant non-collagenous protein in bone, Matrix Gla protein and Ucma/GRP on the other hand are highly abundant in cartilage, and periostin, protein S, and growth arrest specific 6 protein are expressed in skeletal tissues.

Effects of Long-term Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) Intake on Retina Aging

A role for vitamin K in maintaining the aging retina is suggested and it is suggested that the sparing effect of vitamin K does not reflect the survival-promoting (anti-apoptotic) activities ofitamin K-dependent proteins.

Metabolic Engineering of the MEP Pathway in Bacillus subtilis for Increased Biosynthesis of Menaquinone-7.

This work highlights the usefulness of Bacillus subtilis for industrial production of high value compounds and reveals new bottlenecks in the pathway at IspG and IspH, which suggest avenues for further optimization.

Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study.

It is suggested that an adequate intake of menaquinone could be important for CHD prevention and not related to any of the outcomes.

Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification.

  • Jamie L. AdamsJ. Pepping
  • Medicine, Biology
    American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
  • 2005
Phytonadione and menaquinone may be effective for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and arterial calcification and the amount of vitamin K needed for optimal gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin is significantly higher than what is provided through diet alone and that current dosage recommendations should be increased to optimize bone mineralization.

Effect of Phylloquinone on Dexamethasone-Induced Calcification of Heart Muscle and Media Elastocalcinosis in Aorta Artery in Rat Model

According to the findings of pathologic biopsy of aorta artery and heart muscle, treatment of 0.5 mg/kg dexamethasone during 6 and 12 weeks did not induce media elastocalcinosis at all, therefore, different dosages of vitamin K could not affect the aortA artery status.



Nutritional Intake of Vitamins K1 (Phylloquinone) and K2 (Menaquinone) in The Netherlands

It is concluded that K1 is the major form of nutritional vitamin K, that total vitamin K intake is higher than in other populations described and that the correlation betweenitamin K intake and serum concentration is poor.

Tissue distribution of K-vitamers under different nutritional regimens in the rat.

Role of vitamin K in bone metabolism.

Several studies have demonstrated that a poor vitamin K status is associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic bone fractures, and whether vitamin K supplementation will reduce the rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women remains a matter of debate.

Synthesis of vitamin K‐dependent proteins

  • J. Suttie
  • Biology, Chemistry
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 1993
The primary gene product of the vitamin K‐dependent proteins contains a homologous propeptide extension between the amino terminus of the mature protein and signal peptide that serves to dock the protein substrate to the enzyme catalyzing the carboxylation event, and to also alter the apparent Km of the Glu binding site of the enzyme.

Determination of phylloquinone and menaquinones in food. Effect of food matrix on circulating vitamin K concentrations.

It is concluded that the contribution of K(2) vitamins (menaquinones) to the human vitamin K status is presently underestimated, and that their potential interference with oral anticoagulant treatment needs to be investigated.

Conversion of dietary phylloquinone to tissue menaquinone-4 in rats is not dependent on gut bacteria.

Data offer conclusive proof that the tissue-specific formation of MK-4 from K is a metabolic transformation that does not require bacterial transformation to menadione as an intermediate in the process.

Intestinal flora is not an intermediate in the phylloquinone-menaquinone-4 conversion in the rat.

Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) content of foods: a provisional table

Abstract A provisional table on the vitamin K 1 (phylloquinone) content of foods was compiled in response to the expressed need for tabulated data by the public and professionals in medicine,

Phylloquinone and menaquinone-4 distribution in rats: synthesis rather than uptake determines menaquinone-4 organ concentrations.

The study shows the following: dietary phylloquinone is accumulated mainly in the heart and liver, the MK-4 accumulation in nonhepatic organs is due to synthesis rather than uptake andMK-4 rather than phyllaquinone may be the functional vitamin in non hepatics organs.