Role of K vitamins in the regulation of tissue calcification

@article{Vermeer2001RoleOK,
  title={Role of K vitamins in the regulation of tissue calcification},
  author={Cees Vermeer and Lavienja Braam},
  journal={Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism},
  year={2001},
  volume={19},
  pages={201-206}
}
urated and three saturated isoprenoid residues, and it is exclusively synthesized in green plants. Menaquinones (vitamin K2) comprise a spectrum of related forms generally designated as menaquinone-n (MK-n), where n is the number of isoprenyl groups that are all unsaturated. Bacteria synthesize the higher menaquinones, with MK-7 through MK-10 as the most common forms. MK4 is mainly found in animal products (meat, dairy) and originates from conversion of both K1 and K3 (menadione; a synthetic… 

Vitamin K and bone health

  • S. Bügel
  • Medicine, Biology
    Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • 2003
TLDR
Recent data suggest that the requirement for vitamin K in relation to bone health might be higher, compared with the current dietary recommendation, based on saturation of the coagulation system.

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Effects of Long-term Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) Intake on Retina Aging

TLDR
A role for vitamin K in maintaining the aging retina is suggested and it is suggested that the sparing effect of vitamin K does not reflect the survival-promoting (anti-apoptotic) activities ofitamin K-dependent proteins.

Metabolic Engineering of the MEP Pathway in Bacillus subtilis for Increased Biosynthesis of Menaquinone-7.

TLDR
This work highlights the usefulness of Bacillus subtilis for industrial production of high value compounds and reveals new bottlenecks in the pathway at IspG and IspH, which suggest avenues for further optimization.

Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study.

TLDR
It is suggested that an adequate intake of menaquinone could be important for CHD prevention and not related to any of the outcomes.

Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification.

  • Jamie L. AdamsJ. Pepping
  • Medicine, Biology
    American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
  • 2005
TLDR
Phytonadione and menaquinone may be effective for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and arterial calcification and the amount of vitamin K needed for optimal gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin is significantly higher than what is provided through diet alone and that current dosage recommendations should be increased to optimize bone mineralization.

Effect of Phylloquinone on Dexamethasone-Induced Calcification of Heart Muscle and Media Elastocalcinosis in Aorta Artery in Rat Model

TLDR
According to the findings of pathologic biopsy of aorta artery and heart muscle, treatment of 0.5 mg/kg dexamethasone during 6 and 12 weeks did not induce media elastocalcinosis at all, therefore, different dosages of vitamin K could not affect the aortA artery status.
...

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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
The primary gene product of the vitamin K‐dependent proteins contains a homologous propeptide extension between the amino terminus of the mature protein and signal peptide that serves to dock the protein substrate to the enzyme catalyzing the carboxylation event, and to also alter the apparent Km of the Glu binding site of the enzyme.

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TLDR
It is concluded that the contribution of K(2) vitamins (menaquinones) to the human vitamin K status is presently underestimated, and that their potential interference with oral anticoagulant treatment needs to be investigated.

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TLDR
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TLDR
The study shows the following: dietary phylloquinone is accumulated mainly in the heart and liver, the MK-4 accumulation in nonhepatic organs is due to synthesis rather than uptake andMK-4 rather than phyllaquinone may be the functional vitamin in non hepatics organs.
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