Role of Hormonal and Other Factors in Human Prostate Cancer

  title={Role of Hormonal and Other Factors in Human Prostate Cancer},
  author={DonaldT. Wigle and Michelle C. Turner and J Gomes and Marie-{\'E}lise Parent},
  journal={Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B},
  pages={242 - 259}
American men have a lifetime risk of about 18% for prostate cancer diagnosis. Large international variations in prostate cancer risks and increased risks among migrants from low- to high-risk countries indicate important roles for environmental factors. Major known risk factors include age, family history, and country/ethnicity. Type 2 diabetes appears to reduce risk, while high birth weight and adult height are linked to increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Limited evidence supports… 

Prostate cancer

Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer?

Evidence indicates that foods containing lycopene, as well as selenium and foods containing it, probably protect against prostate cancer, and excess consumption of foods or supplements containing calcium are a probable cause of this cancer.

[Constitutional risk factors in prostate cancer].

Prostate Cancer: Biology, Incidence, Detection Methods, Treatment Methods, and Vaccines.

  • R. Bartzatt
  • Medicine
    Current topics in medicinal chemistry
  • 2020
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men, accounting for more than 29% of all diagnosed cancers and about 13% ofall cancer deaths, and a shortened course of hormonal therapy with docetaxel following radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer has been shown to be both safe and feasible.

Family history of prostate cancer and ageâ•’related trend of testosterone levels among <fc>US</fc> males: <fc>NHANES</fc> 2003â•fi2004

Examining the association between family history of PCa and age-related trend in serum T levels among men participating in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2004 found that between two younger age groups (ages 20–39 and 40–59), there was a more pronounced drop-off in T levels.

Diet, obesity, and prostate health: are we missing the link?

Evidence is gathering to support the influence of diet and obesity on prostate health, and this connection is tried to make more apparent using supporting published data.

Family history of prostate cancer and age‐related trend of testosterone levels among US males: NHANES 2003–2004

A large number of studies have ever investigated whether a family history of PCa influences the risk ofPCa via regulating the age‐related trend of T level among males over the life course.

Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

The rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer, are presented.

Estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis involving 18 studies

A positive association correlation was observed between frequencies of the XbaI (A > G) polymorphism and prostate cancer, especially in Africans, but not such correlation was found with regard to the frequency of the PvuII (C >) T polymorphism.



Circulating Steroid Hormones and the Risk of Prostate Cancer

High levels of testosterone and adrenal androgens are associated with reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer but not with nonaggressive disease, and negative but nonsignificant linear trends in risk for aggressive cancer were obtained.

High levels of circulating testosterone are not associated with increased prostate cancer risk: A pooled prospective study

No support was found for the hypothesis that high levels of circulating androgens within a physiologic range stimulate development and growth of prostate cancer.

Hormonal predictors of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis.

A meta-analysis of all previously published studies on hormonal predictors of risk for prostate cancer found that men with either serum testosterone or IGF-1 levels in upper quartile of the population distribution have an approximately two-fold higher risk for developing prostate cancer.

Prospective study of sex hormone levels and risk of prostate cancer.

High levels of circulating testosterone and low levels of SHBG-both within normal endogenous ranges-are associated with increased risks of prostate cancer, and circulating levels of DHT and AAG do not appear to be strongly related to prostate cancer risk.

The role of steroid hormones in prostate carcinogenesis.

  • M. Bosland
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
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A multifactorial general hypothesis of prostate carcinogenesis emerges with androgens as strong tumor promoters acting via androgen receptor-mediated mechanisms to enhance the carcinogenic activity of strong endogenous genotoxic carcinogens and possible weak environmental carcinogens of unknown nature.

Cigarette smoking and risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men.

  • L. A. PlaskonD. PensonT. VaughanJ. Stanford
  • Medicine
    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • 2003
Results from this study suggest that prostate cancer should be added to the list of tumors for which cigarette smoking is a risk factor and a dose-response relationship exists between number of pack-years smoked and cancer risk.

Genetic Susceptibility to Prostate Cancer: Prostate-specific Antigen and its Interaction with the Androgen Receptor (United States)

Evidence is found that the PSA*2*2 diplotype in combination with short AR CAG alleles increases a man’s risk of developing prostate cancer, which supports an etiologic role in prostate cancer of genetic interactions between polymorphisms that increase AR transactivation strength and those that alter the regulatory regions of target genes such as PSA that are responsive to androgen stimulation.

Diabetes and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of US men.

Investigation of the role of timing of diabetes diagnosis in relation to risk of prostate cancer among men in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort showed that diabetes was associated with a lower incidence of prostatecancer.

The role of obesity and related metabolic disturbances in cancers of the colon, prostate, and pancreas.

Substantial evidence now supports a strong role for diabetes and obesity in pancreatic cancer etiology, and the mechanisms for these associations remain speculative and deserve further study.

Prostate cancer risk and serum levels of insulin and leptin: a population-based study.

It is suggested that serum insulin levels may influence the risk of prostate cancer in Chinese men and further research is needed to confirm these findings in high-risk populations.