Investigation into the hepatotoxic effects of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) medications
- Anahid Amiri Shamsabadi
The effect of a valine to isoleucine switch in the CCR2 first transmembrane domain (CCR2 64I) on the clinical course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was analyzed in relation to the presence or absence of syncytium-inducing (SI) HIV-1 variants. Compared with persons with a wild-type genotype for CCR2 and CCR5, subjects with a CCR2-64I/+ or 64I/64I (but CCR5 wild-type homozygous genotype) had significantly delayed disease progression (relative hazard, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.99) with a 1. 5-fold slower CD4 T lymphocyte decline and a 1.2-fold lower RNA virus load. The delay in disease progression was more pronounced when only non-SI (NSI) HIV-1 variants were present and was not observed after conversion to SI HIV-1 in CCR2-64I/+ persons. In CCR2-64I/+ subjects, a higher conversion rate to and a higher prevalence of SI HIV-1 was observed. These findings suggest that the mechanism of action of the CCR2 polymorphism is mediated via CCR5-restricted NSI HIV-1 variants.