Role of Aspirin in Cancer Prevention

@article{Thorat2013RoleOA,
  title={Role of Aspirin in Cancer Prevention},
  author={Mangesh A. Thorat and Jack M Cuzick},
  journal={Current Oncology Reports},
  year={2013},
  volume={15},
  pages={533-540}
}
Since its first synthesis in 1897, several medicinal roles and mechanisms of action of aspirin have become apparent; the latest among these being its role in cancer prevention and treatment. A large body of evidence supports aspirin’s effect in reducing cancer incidence and cancer mortality, but duration of use needs to be at least 5 years. The beneficial effects are particularly large for colorectal, oesophageal and gastric cancers, with apparently smaller reductions for breast, prostate and… 
The role of aspirin in the prevention of ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancers
TLDR
A large body of evidence supports the role of aspirin as an anti-cancer agent, and a number of randomized trials are currently underway aiming to assess the potential benefit of aspirin in the treatment of cancer.
Low-dose aspirin use and the risk of ovarian cancer in Denmark.
TLDR
Low-dose aspirin use may be associated with a reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, and the strongest inverse associations were seen for mucinous and endometrioid tumours.
Prophylactic use of aspirin: systematic review of harms and approaches to mitigation in the general population
TLDR
Screening and eradication of H. pylori infection before aspirin use could reduce the incidence of upper GI complications by 25–30 % and substantially lower aspirin-related GI harms.
S.A.M. and Breast Cancer—Focus on Aspirin and Other Integrative Aspirin-Like Medicines: The Real “Natural” Options
The acronym S.A.M. (statins, aspirin, metformin) is a simplistic clinician and patient method of remembering the three most important off-label “natural” products that should be primarily discussed
Chemoprevention of cancer: current evidence and future prospects
TLDR
There is little disagreement about the role of aspirin, whereas a diet rich in vegetables and fruits appears to convey more protection than individual micronutrients in cancer chemopreventive agents.
Chemoprevention of cancer : current evidence and future
TLDR
There is little disagreement about the role of aspirin, whereas a diet rich in vegetables and fruits appears to convey more protection than individual micronutrients in cancer chemopreventive agents.
Drug repurposing in cancer.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of mortality in lung cancer
TLDR
This meta-analysis of 5 prospective studies was launched to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs for patients with lung cancer on the hazard risk (HR), using the Random-Effect Model to assess pooled HR and between-study heterogeneity, and application of subgroup analysis, meta-regression, and sensitivity analysis was to pinpoint the exact sources of the observed heterogeneity.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 88 REFERENCES
The role of aspirin in cancer prevention
TLDR
The general mechanism of action that defines aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a class, the specific advantages of aspirin over other NSAIDs for prophylactic use, the current evidence concerning the main health outcomes affected by aspirin use, and the hypothesis that inhibition of platelet activation may mediate both the cardioprotective and cancer-preventive effects of low-dose aspirin are considered.
Aspirin and cancer: has aspirin been overlooked as an adjuvant therapy?
TLDR
Concerns about toxicity have limited the use of aspirin as a cancer prevention agent, but recent epidemiological evidence demonstrating regular aspirin use after a diagnosis of cancer improves outcomes suggests that it may have a role in the adjuvant setting where the risk:benefit ratio will be different.
Aspirin in the Chemoprevention of Colorectal Neoplasia: An Overview
TLDR
The case for consideration of long-term aspirin use in CRC prevention is strengthened, as there is a lack of consensus about the balance of risks and benefits associated with long- term aspirin use, particularly in low-risk populations.
Aspirin use and risk of fatal cancer.
TLDR
The data suggest that regular, prolonged use of aspirin may reduce the risk of fatal cancer of the esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum and future epidemiological and basic research should examine all digestive tract cancers.
Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention: an international consensus statement.
Aspirin Use and Colorectal Cancer: Post-Trial Follow-up Data from the Physicians' Health Study
TLDR
Whether 4 to 6 years of regular aspirin use reduced the incidence of colorectal cancer over a 12-year period is examined to shed light on the discrepancies between findings from observational studies and those from randomized trials.
Aspirin Use and Survival After Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer
TLDR
Findings show that use of aspirin after diagnosis of colorectal cancer is associated with improved survival from the disease, especially among patients with primary tumors that overexpress COX-2.
Aspirin intake and survival after breast cancer.
TLDR
Aspirin use was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer death among women living at least 1 year after a breast cancer diagnosis and this association did not differ appreciably by stage, menopausal status, body mass index, or estrogen receptor status.
Aspirin dose and duration of use and risk of colorectal cancer in men.
TLDR
Regular, long-term aspirin use reduces risk of colorectal cancer among men, however, the benefit of aspirin necessitates at least 6 years of consistent use, with maximal risk reduction at doses greater than 14 tablets per week.
...
...