Role for Pro-13 in directing high-affinity binding of anthopleurin B to the voltage-sensitive sodium channel.

  title={Role for Pro-13 in directing high-affinity binding of anthopleurin B to the voltage-sensitive sodium channel.},
  author={G. Kelso and C. L. Drum and D. Hanck and K. Blumenthal},
  volume={35 45},
Anthopleurin A (ApA) and B (ApB) are 49-amino acid polypeptide toxins from the Pacific sea anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica that interfere with inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. ApA, which differs from ApB in seven of the 49 amino acids, displays markedly enhanced isoform selectivity compared with ApB, acting preferentially on cardiac over neuronal sodium channels. Previous studies in this lab have indicated the importance of two unique charged residues in ApB, Arg-12 and Lys-49… Expand
A Specific Interaction between the Cardiac Sodium Channel and Site-3 Toxin Anthopleurin B*
The polypeptide neurotoxin anthopleurin B (ApB) isolated from the venom of the sea anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica is one of a family of toxins that bind to the extracellular face ofExpand
Identification and characterization of novel sodium channel toxins from the sea anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica.
  • G. Kelso, K. Blumenthal
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1998
Six new toxins from the sea anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica were identified using a molecular biological approach, and one appears to be chimera of the two previously identified 49 residue toxins native to A. xanthogramsima. Expand
Functional expression and characterization of four novel neurotoxins from sea anemone Anthopleura sp.
The genes of four novel neurotoxins obtained from sea anemone Anthopleura sp. Expand
Sea anemone toxins affecting potassium channels.
Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases. Expand
Sea anemone toxins affecting voltage-gated sodium channels--molecular and evolutionary features.
A turning point in evolutionary studies of sea anemone toxins was the recent release of the genome sequence of Nematostella vectensis, which enabled analysis of the genomic organization of the corresponding genes and demonstrated that Type I toxins in Nem atostella and other species are encoded by gene families and suggested that these genes developed by concerted evolution. Expand
AdE-1, a new inotropic Na(+) channel toxin from Aiptasia diaphana, is similar to, yet distinct from, known anemone Na(+) channel toxins.
AdE-1 (ion channel modifier), a novel cardiotonic peptide from the sea anemone Aiptasia diaphana, which differs from other cnidarian toxins, and its effects on twitch relaxation velocity, action potential amplitude and on the time to peak suggest that this novel toxin affects cardiomyocyte function via a more complex mechanism. Expand
Structure and Function of Peptide and Protein Toxins from Marine Organisms
This review summarises current information on the structures of marine toxins, determined by either X-ray crystallography or, more often, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, where the amino acid residues essential for activity have been identified, or where the toxin bin... Expand
Site-3 sea anemone toxins: molecular probes of gating mechanisms in voltage-dependent sodium channels.
Sea anemone toxins, whose biological function is the capture of marine prey, are invaluable tools for studying the structure and function of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels. Their high degreeExpand
Advances in Targeting Voltage‐Gated Sodium Channels with Small Molecules
The state of the art in marketed sodium channel inhibitors is reviewed, including a brief compendium of their binding sites and of the cellular and molecular biology of sodium channels, by surveying the most recent medicinal chemistry breakthroughs in the field of small molecules and developments in automated patch‐clamp platforms. Expand
Stationary phase protein overproduction is a fundamental capability of Escherichia coli.
It is demonstrated that at stationary phase three E. coli systems, BL21 (DE3)(pET), DH5alpha (pGEX) induced with lactose, and TG1 (pBV220) inducedwith heat shock could overexpress diversified genes, including three whose products are deleterious to the host cells, more stably and profitably than following the log phase induction protocol. Expand