Roentgenographic measurement of pedicle screw penetration.

Potential complications due to pedicle screw penetration of the anterior cortex include injury to vascular, visceral, ureteral, sympathetic, and neural structures. This study examined the accuracy of lateral roentgenographic techniques in determining actual screw penetration in vertebral levels T12 through S1 of ten unilateral sets of pedicles in five… (More)