Roentgenographic and clinical findings in a spectrum of malformations of the trachea and oesophagus are discussed. Five previously unreported patients representing four rare anomalies of tracheal agenesis, laryngotracheo-oesophageal cleft, oesophageal atresia with a tracheo-oesophageal (T-E) fistula to the proximal oesophageal pouch, and T-E fistula without oesophageal atresia (H-type fistula) are presented. These anomalies can be characterised by a failure in separation of the oesophagus and trachea and by atresia of either organ. All of the patients were diagnosed roentgenographically. Since the incidence of associated abnormalities is high in babies with these anomalies, a generalised embryological defect must be a basic assumption in any theory to explain the development of T-E anomalies.