Robust polarization gradient cooling of trapped ions

@article{Li2022RobustPG,
  title={Robust polarization gradient cooling of trapped ions},
  author={Wenbing Li and Sebastian Wolf and Luk{\'a}{\vs} Klein and Dmitry Budker and Christoph Emanuel D{\"u}llmann and Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler},
  journal={New Journal of Physics},
  year={2022},
  volume={24}
}
We implement three-dimensional polarization gradient cooling (PGC) of trapped ions. Counter-propagating laser beams near 393 nm impinge in lin ⊥ lin configuration, at a frequency below the S1/2 to P3/2 resonance in 40Ca+. Our measurements demonstrate that cooling with laser beams detuned to lower frequencies from the resonance is robust against an elevated phonon occupation number and works continuously in the crossover from regular Doppler cooling to detunings of tens of linewidths. It is thus… 
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