Robber bees (Lestrimelitta limao) and their host chemical and visual cues in nest defense byTrigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Apidae: Meliponinae)

@article{Wittmann2005RobberB,
  title={Robber bees (Lestrimelitta limao) and their host chemical and visual cues in nest defense byTrigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Apidae: Meliponinae)},
  author={Dieter Wittmann and Rainer Radtke and Jochen Zeil and Gunther L{\"u}bke and Wittko Francke},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
  year={2005},
  volume={16},
  pages={631-641}
}
The nest of the stingless bee,Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula, is guarded by bees positioned in the nest entrance and others hovering in front of it. Hovering guard bees track returning foragers sideways along the last 10 cm in front of the nest, but intercept and incapacitate nest intruders by clinging with mandibles to wings and legs. When attacked by the cleptobiotic stingless beeLestrimelitta limao, the colony strengthens its aerial defense with hundreds of additional hoverers. To test our… Expand
Temporal Response of Foragers and Guards of Two Stingless Bee Species to Cephalic Compounds of the Robber Bee Lestrimelitta niitkib (Ayala) (Hymenoptera, Apidae)
TLDR
It is found that even though T. angustula did not react to nestmates’ crushed head, its response towards L. niitkib cephalic compounds was stronger and lasted longer than that of S. mexicana; however, more species must be studied to elucidate any pattern regarding the absence/presence of alarm pheromones and the corresponding response to intruders’ phersomones. Expand
Hovering guards of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula increase colony defensive perimeter as shown by intra- and inter-specific comparisons
TLDR
The hypothesis that T. angustula hovering guards increase the detection perimeter for flying intruders, especially L. limao, is supported and a greater number of attacks by guards occurred when dummies were impregnated with citral, a major component of L. Limao. Expand
Defensive repertoire of the stingless bee Melipona flavolineata Friese (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
TLDR
The results confirm the mandibular gland as a source of alarm pheromone for this specie and also the chemical triggering of defensive response for the known cleptoparasite L. limao. Expand
Standing and hovering guards of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula complement each other in entrance guarding and intruder recognition
TLDR
It is shown that T. angustula colony entrances are also defended by guards standing on the entrance tube, and the defence reaction was not, however, comparable to the reaction previously reported to citral, the propaganda chemical used by the obligate robber bee Lestrimelitta limao when attacking other bee colonies. Expand
Interspecific chemical communication in raids of the robber bee Lestrimelitta limao
TLDR
The results suggest that interspecific communication plays a role during natural raids and that esters from L. limao labial glands, rather than citral, are more likely to trigger the host retreat. Expand
Ambush Predation of Stingless Bees (Tetragonisca angustula) by the Solitary-Foraging Ant Ectatomma tuberculatum
TLDR
A solitary foraging strategy of the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum is described, on nest guards of the stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula, suggesting an adaptive and targeted predatory strategy aimed at gathering external guard bees as prey from these heavily fortified nests. Expand
Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae)
TLDR
All parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins are identified, of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. Expand
Stingless bee nesting biology
TLDR
Stingless bees diverged since the Cretaceous, have 50 times more species than Apis, and are both distinctive and diverse, which may all increase nesting specificity, competition, symbiosis and cleptobiosis in communities, while disease is rare. Expand
Visually controlled station-keeping by hovering guard bees ofTrigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae)
Summary1.Guard bees of the stingless beeTrigona (Tetragonisca) angustula typically hover in very stable positions on both sides of and close to the nest entrance; for most of the time they face theExpand
The role of wax and resin in the nestmate recognition system of a stingless bee, Tetragonisca angustula
TLDR
The results confirm the accuracy of nestmate recognition in T. angustula and reject the hypothesis that this high level of accuracy is due to the use of the wax entrance tubes as a referent for colony odour. Expand
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References

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TLDR
The presence of citral, released by Lestrimelitta limao during the raids, leads to a rapid increase in the number of hovering guard bees in front of T. angustula nests, which suggests that the defense behavior in T.Angustula has evolved under the pressure of L. limao raids and that citral functions in the nest as an alarm kairomone. Expand
Citral in stingless bees: isolation and functions in trail-laying and robbing.
TLDR
Citral is identified as the probable key factor responsible for the successful robbing activities of L. limao workers and the role of exocrine products which are employed as allomones by robbing bees and ants is discussed. Expand
Visually controlled station-keeping by hovering guard bees ofTrigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Apidae, Meliponinae)
Summary1.Guard bees of the stingless beeTrigona (Tetragonisca) angustula typically hover in very stable positions on both sides of and close to the nest entrance; for most of the time they face theExpand
Reactions of five species of stingless bees to some volatile chemicals and to other species of bees
TLDR
The conclusion is that bees probably learn to recognize the odour of other species that rob from their nests, and that the pheromones of the robbing species are allomones that recruit the victims to the defence of the nest. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
The mandibular glands of the stingless bee Lestrimelitta limao secrete a volatile terpenoid which has been identified as citral, and the probable functions of citral are discussed in relation to the biology of L. limao. Expand
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TLDR
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