Roadmap for CMOS image sensors: Moore meets Planck and Sommerfeld

  title={Roadmap for CMOS image sensors: Moore meets Planck and Sommerfeld},
  author={Peter B. Catrysse and Brian A. Wandell},
  booktitle={IS\&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging},
The steady increase in CMOS imager pixel count is built on the technology advances summarized as Moore's law. Because imagers must interact with light, Moore's Law impact differs from its impact on other integrated circuit applications. In this paper, we investigate how the trend towards smaller pixels interacts with two fundamental properties of light: photon noise and diffraction. Using simulations, we investigate three consequences of decreasing pixel size on image quality. First, we… 
Microlens performance limits in sub-2um pixel CMOS image sensors
A systematic analysis of microlens design during lateral scaling of CMOS image sensor pixels and finds that there are two regimes of operation for three-metal-layer pixels depending on pixel size and wavelength.
Microlens performance limits in sub-2mum pixel CMOS image sensors.
It is established for a three-metal-layer pixel that diffraction prevents the microlens from acting as a focusing element when pixels become smaller than 1.4 microm, and predicted that one- metal-layer or backside-illuminated pixels are required to extend the functionality of microlenses beyond the 1.
Optical confinement methods for continued scaling of CMOS image sensor pixels.
This work investigates and compares three methods for guiding incident light from the microlens down to the photodiode and finds significant improvement for the TIR designs with properly chosen parameters and nearly full spatial crosstalk elimination using metal to confine the light.
Mitigation of pixel scaling effects in CMOS image sensors
Three methods for guiding incident light from the microlens down to the photodiode are investigated and compared and the optical efficiency and spatial crosstalk performance of these methods compared to a reference pixel is evaluated.
Effects of imaging lens f-number on sub-2 µm CMOS image sensor pixel performance
This work investigates the effects of imaging lens f-number on sub-2µm CMOS image sensor pixel performance and predicts the performance of a realistic pixel structure subject to illumination from an objective lens using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation.
Pixel scaling in infrared focal plane arrays.
First-principles electromagnetic simulations of pixel structures based on a mercury-cadmium-telluride photoconductor for use in FPAs indicate the possibility of wavelength-size and even subwavelength-size pixels for IR FPAs and explore opportunities that emerge for controlling light with subwa wavelength structures inside FPA pixels.
Resolution and light sensitivity tradeoff with pixel size
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Efficiency enhancement in a backside illuminated 1.12 μm pixel CMOS image sensor via parabolic color filters.
By adopting a parabolic color filter (P-CF), efficiency enhancement is demonstrated without any noticeable change in optical crosstalk of a backside illuminated 1.12 μm pixel CIS with deep-trench-isolation structure.
Super-resolution: Imaging beyond the pixel size limit
A new high resolution imaging system independent of the image sensorpsilas pixel size is implemented by integrating a nano-aperture patterned in the first metal layer within the pixel using a standard CMOS process.
A 45 nm Stacked CMOS Image Sensor Process Technology for Submicron Pixel †
A submicron pixel’s light and dark performance were studied by experiment and simulation. An advanced node technology incorporated with a stacked CMOS image sensor (CIS) is promising in that it may


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The relatively constant noise threshold across a wide range of conditions has specific implications for the imaging sensor design and image process pipeline.
A 14-megapixel 36 x 24-mm2 image sensor
We will present a 3044 x 4556 pixels CMOS image sensor with a pixel array of 36 x 24 mm2, equal to the size of 35 mm film. Though primarily developed for digital photography, the compatibility of the
Integrated color pixels in 0.18-microm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology.
  • P. Catrysse, B. Wandell
  • Materials Science
    Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision
  • 2003
This work designed and prototyped integrated color pixels in a standard 0.18-microm CMOS technology and found to exhibit wavelength selectivity in the visible range, and used simulations to predict the transmittance.
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This paper describes a methodology, using a camera simulator and image quality metrics, for determining the optimal pixel size, and it is shown that the optimalpixel size scales with technology, btu at slower rate than the technology itself.
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A method for integrating information from lens design into image system simulation tools and includes a number of parameters and methods designed to reduce artifacts that can arise in shift-variant filtering.
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It is found that under moderate illumination conditions photon noise alone introduces an uncertainty in the estimated CIELAB coordinates on the order of 1-2 ΔE units for RGGB sensors and in certain cases even higher uncertainty levels for CMYG sensors.
Introduction to Fourier optics
The second edition of this respected text considerably expands the original and reflects the tremendous advances made in the discipline since 1968. All material has been thoroughly updated and
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The Image Systems Evaluation Toolkit (ISET) is an integrated suite of software routines that simulate the capture and processing of visual scenes that assist the engineer in evaluating the color accuracy and quality of the rendered image.
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Cramming More Components Onto Integrated Circuits
  • G. Moore
  • Computer Science
    Proceedings of the IEEE
  • 1998
The future of integrated electronics is the future of electronics itself. The advantages of integration will bring about a proliferation of electronics, pushing this science into many new areas.