Risks for public health related to the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX analogues in marine bivalves and gastropods

@article{Knutsen2017RisksFP,
  title={Risks for public health related to the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX analogues in marine bivalves and gastropods},
  author={H. Knutsen and J. Alexander and L. Barregard and M. Bignami and B. Br{\"u}schweiler and S. Ceccatelli and B. Cottrill and M. Dinovi and L. Edler and B. Grasl-Kraupp and C. Hogstrand and L. Hoogenboom and C. Nebbia and I. Oswald and M. Rose and A. Roudot and T. Schwerdtle and C. Vleminckx and G. Vollmer and Heather M. Wallace and N. Arnich and D. Benford and L. Botana and B. Viviani and D. Arcella and M. Binaglia and Z. Horv{\'a}th and H. Steinkellner and Mathijs H. van Manen and A. Petersen},
  journal={EFSA Journal},
  year={2017},
  volume={15}
}
Abstract Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues are produced by marine bacteria and have been detected in marine bivalves and gastropods from European waters. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of TTX and TTX analogues in marine bivalves and gastropods. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain reviewed the available literature but did not find support for the minimum lethal dose for humans of 2 mg, mentioned in… Expand
Public Health Risks Associated with Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in European Waters: Recent Advances after The EFSA Scientific Opinion
TLDR
The present review aims to summarize the knowledge obtained towards addressing recommendations in the two years following publication of the EFSA opinion on TTXs, at the same time highlighting the points requiring further investigation. Expand
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TLDR
Current knowledge on worldwide TTX levels in edible gastropods and bivalves over the last four decades are reviewed, the different methods of detection used, and the current regulatory status are reviewed. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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Marine Tetrodotoxin as a Risk for Human Health
TLDR
The aim of this review is to present the most recent information about TTX and its analogues with particular regard to toxicity, methods of analysis, and risk to humans of exposure. Expand
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TLDR
Assessment of TTX levels in wild and farmed mussels harvested in 2018–2019 along the coastal area of the Marche region in the Central Adriatic Sea found that TTXs in mussels are not yet a threat in the MarChe region nor in Europe, but further investigations are surely needed. Expand
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