Risk of predation, hydrodynamic efficiency and their influence on school structure

  title={Risk of predation, hydrodynamic efficiency and their influence on school structure},
  author={Mark V. Abrahams and Patrick Colgan},
  journal={Environmental Biology of Fishes},
SynopsisLaboratory studies were conducted on 15 schools of blackchin shiners, Notropis heterodon, to determine if they altered their structure in response to changing environmental demands. The hypothesis tested was that fish schools should sacrifice a flat, hydrodynamically efficient structure in favour of an unobstructed visual field in the presence of a predator by staggering in the vertical plane. Ten schools were exposed for two weeks to a simple environment with only a current. For the… 

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