Risk of invasive cancer of the cervix in relation to the use of injectable progestogen contraceptives and combined estrogen/progestogen oral contraceptives (South Africa)

@article{Shapiro2004RiskOI,
  title={Risk of invasive cancer of the cervix in relation to the use of injectable progestogen contraceptives and combined estrogen/progestogen oral contraceptives (South Africa)},
  author={S. Shapiro and L. Rosenberg and M. Hoffman and J. Kelly and D. Cooper and H. Carrara and L. Denny and G. du Toit and B. Allan and I. Stander and A. Williamson},
  journal={Cancer Causes \& Control},
  year={2004},
  volume={14},
  pages={485-495}
}
Background: Cervical cancer is caused by specific types of the human papilloma virus (HPV), but not all infected women develop cancer. It has been hypothesized that hormonal contraceptives may potentiate the oncogenicity of HPV infection. Methods: In a case–control study of colored and black women in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, 524 incident cases of clinically evident invasive cervical cancer (stages lb–1V) were compared with 1541 controls, and with a subgroup of 254 HPV-positive… Expand
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