Risk factors for developing post‐traumatic stress disorder following childbirth: a systematic review

@article{Andersen2012RiskFF,
  title={Risk factors for developing post‐traumatic stress disorder following childbirth: a systematic review},
  author={Louise B Andersen and Lisa B Melvaer and Poul Videbech and Ronald F Lamont and Jan Stener Joergensen},
  journal={Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica},
  year={2012},
  volume={91}
}
Background. Approximately 1–2% of women suffer from post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) postnatally. This review aims to elucidate how women at risk can be identified. Methods. A systematic search of the published literature was carried out using the MEDLINE database (November 2003 to 29 October 2010) with both MeSH terms and free text. Thirty‐one studies were considered appropriate for qualitative synthesis. Articles were included on the basis of (a) publication pertaining to PTSD following… 
The aetiology of post-traumatic stress following childbirth: a meta-analysis and theoretical framework
TLDR
The results of this meta-analysis are used to update a diathesis–stress model of the aetiology of postpartum PTSD and can be used to inform screening, prevention and intervention in maternity care.
The aetiology of posttraumatic stress following childbirth: a meta-analysis and theoretical framework
There is evidence that 3.17% of women report posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on vulnerability and risk factors for birth-related PTSD
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Following Childbirth: Prevalence and Contributing Factors
TLDR
Investigating the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following childbirth revealed a significant correlation between maternal occupation, depression level, and anxiety level with PTSD following childbirth.
Post‐traumatic stress disorder in the perinatal period: A concept analysis
TLDR
Perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder owns unique attributes, antecedents and outcomes when compared to post- traumatic stress disorder in other contexts, and may be defined as a disorder arising after a traumatic experience, diagnosed any time from conception to 6 months postpartum, lasting longer than 1 month.
Perinatal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment.
TLDR
Identifying and treating perinatal posttraumatic stress disorder have important implications for maternal and neonatal health and combining P-PTSD research with current guidelines for PTSD is necessary to inform clinical practice.
Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following childbirth
TLDR
EMDR and CBT seem to be effective as therapy for PTSD following childbirth, however, evidence is still limited and more controlled trials are needed to draw conclusive results.
Childbirth Induced Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Prevalence and Risk Factors
TLDR
Although the majority of women cope well, childbirth for some can be perceived as a highly stressful experience and even result in the development of PP-PTSD symptoms, and negative subjective experience of childbirth emerged as the most important predictor.
A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder
TLDR
It is crucially important that clinicians and policy makers are aware of a potential higher risk of PTSD among women who experience severe morbidity, and understand underlying mechanisms in order to minimise the longer term psychiatric impact of severe maternal morbidity.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 56 REFERENCES
Posttraumatic stress following childbirth: a review.
Childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder in couples: a qualitative study.
TLDR
PTSD may have a negative impact on the couple's relationship and the parent-baby bond, according to this study's results.
Sense of coherence and symptoms of post‐traumatic stress after emergency caesarean section
TLDR
Symptoms of post‐traumatic stress following EmCS are associated both with the new mother's personal coping style and with the circumstances of the event, and it is recommended that women who belong to groups who more often report a low SOC or who had imminent asphyxia as an indication for the operation should be offered support and follow‐up.
A prospective longitudinal study of the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder resulting from childbirth events
TLDR
This is the first study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD resulting from childbirth after controlling for pre-existing PTSD and partial PTSD and clinically significant depression and anxiety in pregnancy.
Delivery as a Traumatic Event: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment for Postnatal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • S. Ayers
  • Psychology
    Clinical obstetrics and gynecology
  • 2004
TLDR
The limited research available suggests that a history of psychiatric problems, mode of delivery, and low support during labor put women at increased risk of postnatal PTSD, although there is unlikely to be a simple relationship between Mode of delivery and traumatic stress responses.
Posttraumatic stress disorder after pregnancy, labor, and delivery.
TLDR
In this study, postpartum stress symptoms appeared to be related more to stressful life events and depression than to pregnancy, labor, and delivery.
Post-traumatic stress disorder following childbirth: current issues and recommendations for future research
TLDR
Current knowledge from the perspectives of the researchers is summarized, dilemmas are articulated and recommendations for future research into PTSD following childbirth are made.
Traumatic Stress after Childbirth: The Role of Obstetric Variables
TLDR
In a sample of 1550 recently delivered women, traumatic stress after childbirth was studied in relation to obstetric variables and found that most women with a PTSD symptom profile were found in the normal vaginal delivery group (NVD), implying that a normal vaginal Delivery can be experienced as traumatic, but as an emergency cesarian section is not necessarily traumatic.
The effects of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder on women and their relationships: A qualitative study
TLDR
Childbirth-related PTSD can have severe and lasting effects on women and their relationships with their partner and children, and further research is needed to compare this to normal difficulties experienced by women after having children.
...
...