A 2-year, cross-sectional study was conducted to identify risk factors for Cryptosporidium sp. infection in bovine farms in central Italy. Faecal samples were collected on 248 farms, from 2024 calves and analysed using ELISA and immunofluorescent assay (IFA) commercial kits. In all 101 samples confirmed to be positive with IFA, the aetiological agent was identified as Cryptosporidium parvumand a large genetic variability was detected by subtype analysis. The prevalence of farm infection ranged from 3.4% to 35.6%. Univariate analysis showed a number of putative risk factors, including the type of farm, stalling of calves, late supply of colostrum, number of heads and contact between calves and adults. However, multivariate analysis confirmed that the higher risk for calves was associated with housing calves separately from their dams, a characteristic practice of dairy herd, whereas calves being nursed by their dams, a characteristic of cow-calf herd resulted as a protective factor.