Asthma is still one of the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways who determines a high rate of morbidity and mortality in children population. This paper aims to highlight the main risk factors for asthma in children. It is a prospective study and was conducted on a sample of 199 cases with obstructive respiratory disease admitted in the Pediatric Clinic Emergency Hospital Constanta. After a four years period, we identified 126 cases of children that developed asthma. Assessment of risk factors for asthma showed high frequency for the following risk factors: male gender (57.1%), urban (60%), prematurity (29.51%), family atopy (53.2), artificial nutrition, exposure to cigarette smoke.