Risk Factors for Legal Induced Abortion–Related Mortality in the United States

  title={Risk Factors for Legal Induced Abortion–Related Mortality in the United States},
  author={Linda Bartlett and Cynthia J. Berg and Holly B. Shulman and Suzanne B. Zane and C A Green and Sara J. Whitehead and Hani K. Atrash},
  journal={Obstetrics \& Gynecology},
OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for legal induced abortion–related deaths. METHODS: This is a descriptive epidemiologic study of women dying of complications of induced abortions. Numerator data are from the Abortion Mortality Surveillance System. Denominator data are from the Abortion Surveillance System, which monitors the number and characteristics of women who have legal induced abortions in the United States. Risk factors examined include age of the woman, gestational length of pregnancy… 

The Comparative Safety of Legal Induced Abortion and Childbirth in the United States

Legal induced abortion is markedly safer than childbirth, and the risk of death associated with childbirth is approximately 14 times higher than that with abortion.

Factors associated with the timing of abortions.

Estimates indicate that the introduction of state restrictions on Medicaid funding of abortions is associated with a 13% increase in the rate of abortions after the first trimester, and there is no statistically significant association between parental involvement laws and the rate or percentage of post-first-trimester abortions.

Induced Abortion and the Increased Risk of Maternal Mortality

This review explores the relationship between legal-induced abortion and maternal mortality in the United States and reports that the death rate from legal induced abortion performed at 18 weeks gestation is more than double that observed for women experiencing vaginal delivery.

Legal restrictions and complications of abortion: insights from data on complication rates in the United States.

This study used hospital discharge data to study the rates of major abortion complications in 23 states from 2001 to 2008 and their relationship to two laws: (i) restrictions on Medicaid – the state insurance programs for the poor – funding, and (ii) mandatory delays before abortion.

Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2019

Abortion rates decreased from 2010 to 2019 for all women, regardless of age; however, abortion ratios in 2019 were highest among adolescents (aged ≤19 years) and lowest among women aged 25–39 years.

Unsafe abortion and abortion-related death among 1.8 million women in India

Despite abortion being legal, the high estimated prevalence of unsafe abortion demonstrates a major public health problem in India as Socioeconomic vulnerability and inadequate access to healthcare services combine to leave large numbers of women at risk of unsafeabortion and abortion-related death.

Incidence of Emergency Department Visits and Complications After Abortion

Using 2009–2010 abortion data among women covered by the fee-for-service California Medicaid program and all subsequent health care for 6 weeks after having an abortion, the abortion-related complication rate and the adjusted relative risk were estimated.

Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2015

In 2015, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis, and women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women aged ≥30 years accounted for a smaller percentage of pregnancies and had lower abortion rates.

Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2014

Abortion ratios in 2014 and throughout the entire period of analysis were highest among adolescents and lowest among women aged 30–39 years, as the percentage of all abortions performed at ≤13 weeks’ gestation remained consistently high and there was a shift toward earlier gestational ages.



Abortion mortality, United States, 1972 through 1987.

Legal abortion mortality in the United States: 1972 to 1982.

Legal abortion mortality and general anesthesia.

Abortion surveillance--United States, 1997.

The number of abortions in the United States declined to it lowest level since 1978 in 1997, and the availability of information about characteristics of women who obtained an abortion in 1997 varied by state and by the number of states reporting each characteristic.

Abortion surveillance--United States, 1998.

The number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States should continue to be monitored so that trends in induced abortion can be assessed and efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy can be evaluated.

The accessibility of abortion services in the United States, 2001.

Abortion at very early and late gestations and early medical abortion are more available than before, but charges have increased and antiabortion picketing remains at high levels, so many women still face substantial barriers to obtaining an abortion.

Mortality from abortion and childbirth. Are the statistics biased?

The crude data are biased in a direction that overestimates the abortion risks for the women relative to the risks of childbearing, and abortion deaths appear to be more completely ascertained than childbirth deaths.

Abortion surveillance--United States, 1999.

The highest percentages of abortions were reported for women aged < 25 years, women who were white, and unmarried women; slightly more than half were obtaining an abortion for the first time.