Risk Factors for Birth Defects.

  title={Risk Factors for Birth Defects.},
  author={Benjamin S. Harris and Katherine Bishop and Hanna R. Kemeny and Jennifer S. Walker and Eleanor H J Rhee and Jeffrey A. Kuller},
  journal={Obstetrical \& gynecological survey},
  volume={72 2},
Importance Major congenital abnormalities, or birth defects, carry significant medical, surgical, cosmetic, or lifestyle consequences. Such abnormalities may be syndromic, involving multiple organ systems, or can be isolated. Overall, 2% to 4% of live births involve congenital abnormalities. Risk factors for birth defects are categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Modifiable risk factors require thorough patient education/counseling. The strongest risk factors, such as age, family history… 

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