Rise and Fall of Axum, Ethiopia: A Geo-Archaeological Interpretation

  title={Rise and Fall of Axum, Ethiopia: A Geo-Archaeological Interpretation},
  author={Karl Wilhelm Butzer},
  journal={American Antiquity},
  pages={471 - 495}
  • K. Butzer
  • Published 1 July 1981
  • Environmental Science
  • American Antiquity
Civilizations represent human ecosystems amenable to systematic geo-archaeological analysis. The civilization of Axum, spanning the first millennium A.D., had its settlement core on the now-denuded, subhumid plateau of northern Ethiopia. Axum, a new city, began A.D. 100 as a ceremonial center, growing to over 10,000 people, as a prosperous emporium for international trade. Intensified land use led to mass movements in slope soils before A.D. 300, but a range of clayey stream deposits also… 

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