• Corpus ID: 16893201

Ring oscillators: Characteristics and applications

  title={Ring oscillators: Characteristics and applications},
  author={Mrinal Kanti Mandal and B. C. Sarkar},
  journal={Indian Journal of Pure \& Applied Physics},
  • M. Mandal, B. Sarkar
  • Published 1 February 2010
  • Chemistry
  • Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics
The structure and operating principle of ring oscillators (RO) have been described. The expression for the frequency of oscillation of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) delay cell based conventional ring oscillator is presented and propagation delay of the delay stages is calculated. The limitations of a conventional RO have been studied and a few techniques to overcome these limitations have been mentioned. In this context, some modified structures of ring oscillators such as… 

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