Right Atrial Isomerism in Four Siblings


Heterotaxy syndromes, right or left atrial isomerism, result from disruption of left–right axis determination and their manifestations include complicated heart defects. Recent studies in model organisms have revealed complex genetic pathways and several genes involved in this process. In affected humans, however, molecular studies have identified mutations… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s00246-003-0540-1


3 Figures and Tables