Ribosomal DNA phylogeny of the major extant arthropod classes and the evolution of myriapods

  title={Ribosomal DNA phylogeny of the major extant arthropod classes and the evolution of myriapods},
  author={Markus Friedrich and Diethard Tautz},
THE evolutionary relationships among arthropods are of particular interest because the best-studied model system for ontogenetic pattern formation, the insect Drosophila, is a member of this phylum. Evolutionary inferences about the developmental mechanisms that have led to the various designs of the arthropod body plan depend on a knowledge of the phylogenetic framework of arthropod evolution. Based on morphological evidence1–3, but also on palaeonto-logical considerations4, the sister group… 

Hox genes and the phylogeny of the arthropods

Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology

The optimal ‘total evidence’ cladogram supports the crustacean–hexapod clade, recognizes pycnogonids as sister to other euarthropods, and indicates monophyly of Myriapoda and Mandibulata.

On the phylogenetic position of insects in the Pancrustacea clade

Molecular synapomorphies in low homoplastic regions are reported, which support the clade Hexapoda + Branchiopoda + Maxillopoda and the monophyletic Malacostraca including Phyllocarida.

Mitochondrial protein phylogeny joins myriapods with chelicerates

Molecular phylogenetic analysis of conserved regions from the arthropod mitochondrial proteome yields highly resolved and congruent trees and proposes a model to explain the apparently parallel evolution of similar head morphologies in insects and myriapods.

Resolving arthropod relationships: Present and future insights from evo-devo studies

Future investigations should shift the focus to delineating the genetic mechanisms of structural development down to their most specific events, encompassing regulatory mechanisms to the level of individual target genes.

Molecular Phylogeny of Arthropods and the Significance of the Cambrian “Explosion” for Molecular Systematics

Two models are proposed to explain incongruity in the attempt to resolve arthropod phylogeny using the amino acid sequence of elongation factor-1α, which fails to establish relationships among most higher-level groups, although it does recover more recently derived clades.

The mitochondrial genome of the house centipede scutigera and the monophyly versus paraphyly of myriapods.

It is suggested that water-to-land transition occurred at least three times (hexapods, myriapods) during the evolution of the Arthropoda, which would increase to four the main events of land colonization in arthropods (once for centipedes, once for millipedes).

Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences

This work presents strongly supported results from likelihood, Bayesian and parsimony analyses of over 41 kilobases of aligned DNA sequence from 62 single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes from 75 arthropod species, providing a statistically well-supported phylogenetic framework for the largest animal phylum.

28S rDNA evolution in the Eumalacostraca and the phylogenetic position of krill.

The phylogenetic position of one order within this class of Crustacea, the Euphausiacea, was investigated using 28S rDNA sequences from representatives of several malacostracan orders, and suggested that Euphasiacea are most closely related to the Mysida and not the Decapoda, as is generally thought.



Insect-Crustacean Relationships: Insights from Comparative Developmental and Molecular Studies

The available morphological evidence is examined and it is suggested that insects could emerge from this crustacean-like ancestor independently from myriapods, and after the major crustACEan radiations.

Evolutionary change in neural development within the arthropods: axonogenesis in the embryos of two crustaceans.

While the pattern of early axon growth in the woodlouse and crayfish embryos is sufficiently similar that many neurons could be confidently recognised as homologues, several differences were noted in both the relative order of axon outgrowth and axon morphologies of individual neurons.


The success of 16 methods of phylogenetic inference was examined using consis? tency and simulation analysis. Success?the frequency with which a tree-making method cor? rectly identified the true

Complete sequences of the rRNA genes of Drosophila melanogaster.

Detailed analyses reveal, in addition to unequal crossing-over, the involvement of slippage and biased mutation in the evolution of the rDNA multigene family and the molecular coevolution of both expansion segments and the nucleotides involved with compensatory changes required to maintain secondary structures of RNA.

Evidence for higher rates of nucleotide substitution in rodents than in man.

  • C. WuW. Li
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1985
It is found that rodents evolve significantly faster than man when the coding regions of 11 genes from rodents (mouse or rat) and man are compared with those from another mammalian species (usually bovine).


  • J. Felsenstein
  • Economics
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1985
The recently‐developed statistical method known as the “bootstrap” can be used to place confidence intervals on phylogenies and shows significant evidence for a group if it is defined by three or more characters.

Mandibular mechanisms and evolution of arthropods

  • S. Manton
  • Biology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
  • 1964
(1) A functional and comparative study has been made of the jaw mechanisms of representatives of the major classes of arthropods, covering, where appropriate, the whole endoskeletal systems of the

Earliest-known uniramous arthropod

  • R. Robison
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1990
THE earliest-known fully terrestrial animals are myriapods from the Upper Silurian of Britain1, and unnamed myriapod-like fossils have recently been reported from Lower Silurian marine deposits in

Ontogeny of the Arachnid Central Nervous System

In the grasshopper, Goodman and coworkers have shown the events by which—by a fixed pattern of cell divisions and differentiation—neurons are formed by particular neuroblasts, and are able to demonstrate that the neurons derived from a particular neuroblast share certain features, such as transmitters, and vary with respect to others,such as electrical properties.

Land animals in the silurian: arachnids and myriapods from shropshire, England.

The presence of predatory arthropods suggests that complex terrestrial ecosystems were in place by the late Silurian (414 x 10(6) years before present) and that the animal invasion of the land occurred earlier than was previously thought.