Rhynie chert fossils demonstrate the independent origin and gradual evolution of lycophyte roots.

@article{Hetherington2019RhynieCF,
  title={Rhynie chert fossils demonstrate the independent origin and gradual evolution of lycophyte roots.},
  author={Alexander J. Hetherington and Liam Dolan},
  journal={Current opinion in plant biology},
  year={2019},
  volume={47},
  pages={
          119-126
        }
}
Mapping fossil traits onto the land plant phylogenetic framework indicates that there were at least two independent origins of roots among extant vascular plants - once in lycophytes and independently in euphyllophytes. At least two rooting structural types are found among extinct species preserved in the Rhynie chert. First, species that lacked roots and developed horizontal axes that developed rhizoids. Second, the rooting axes of Asteroxylon mackiei resembled the roots of extant lycopsids… 
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