Rhodopsin-like sensitivity of extra-retinal photoreceptors mediating the photoperiodic response in quail

@article{Foster1985RhodopsinlikeSO,
  title={Rhodopsin-like sensitivity of extra-retinal photoreceptors mediating the photoperiodic response in quail},
  author={Russell G. Foster and Brian Keith Follett and John N. Lythgoe},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1985},
  volume={313},
  pages={50-52}
}
It has been known for some 50 years that birds use photoreceptors in or near the hypothalamus to mediate the photoperiodic responses that control seasonal breeding1. So far, however, attempts to identify the photopigment by determining an action spectrum have failed1. The problems stem from the selective filtering of light by the tissues surrounding the photoreceptors and the need to deliver defined amounts of light over the days or weeks required to induce a quantitative measure of… 
Vertebrate ancient opsin photopigment spectra and the avian photoperiodic response
TLDR
The spectral sensitivity of these photopigments match the peak absorbance of the avian photoperiodic response and permits maximum photon capture within the restricted light environment of the hypothalamus, arguing strongly that VA opsin plays a key role in regulating seasonal reproduction in birds.
Non-visual photoreception by a variety of vertebrate opsins.
TLDR
The effort to identify the 'deep brain opsin' responsible for the photoperiodic gonadal response resulted in the identification of two kinds of opsins; pinopsin in the toad anterior preoptic nucleus and rhodopsIn in the pigeon lateral septum, which are localized in the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons in the brain of the two animals.
VA Opsin-Based Photoreceptors in the Hypothalamus of Birds
Vertebrate ancient opsin and melanopsin: divergent irradiance detectors.
  • W. L. Davies, M. Hankins, R. Foster
  • Biology
    Photochemical & photobiological sciences : Official journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology
  • 2010
TLDR
This review discusses the history of discovery for the vertebrate ancient (va) opsin and melanopsin genes, as well as focusing on the evolution, expression profile, functional role and broader physiological significance of each photopigment.
Non-rod, non-cone photoreception in the vertebrates
EXTRA-RETINAL PHOTORECEPTORS IN BIRDS : A MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CONSIDERATION
TLDR
The immunohistoand cytochemical issues revelant to the localization of the brain photoreceptors in the avian brain and an overview of the morphological bases for the Avian extra-retinal photoreceptor are reviewed.
Red light is necessary to activate the reproductive axis in chickens independently of the retina of the eye.
TLDR
Red light was required to stimulate the reproductive axis whereas green light was ineffective, and the effects of stimulatory wavelengths do not appear to require a functional retina of the eye.
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In the dictionary sense a pigment is a substance that is coloured to the human eye. Colour is so striking a sensation that it was once thought to be an attribute of the “coloured” substance itself.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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A very good piece of work, I assure you, and a merry. -Now, good Peter Quince, call forth your actors by the scroll. -Masters, spread yourselves. A Midsummer Night's Dream. Act 1, Sc. 2 This volume
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