The synonymy of the generaRhinocladiella andFonsecaea is discussed and the taxonomic position of the pathogenic speciesR. mansonii, R. pedrosoi andR. compacta is defined. Descriptions and figures of these species are presented. Descriptions and figures are also presented ofDictyotrichiella mansonii Schol-Schwarz sp. n. (the perfect state ofRhinocladiella mansonii),R. anceps andR. elatior.