Rheopheresis is a specific application of membrane differential filtration, synonymous with double filtration plasmapheresis for extracorporeal hemorheotherapy, eliminating an exactly defined spectrum of high molecular weight proteins from human plasma (e.g.: fibrinogen, alpha-2-macroglobulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, IgM). This results in the improvement of blood flow and microcirculation initiated by lowering blood and plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte aggregation. In this context, microcirculation stands not only for the patency of small blood vessels, but for the complete interactive network between plasma, blood cells, the vessel wall, and cellular and extracellular compartments of the surrounding tissue. Insufficient tissue oxygenation leads to tissue damage, e.g., a microcirculatory disorder develops, creating acute as well as chronic symptoms. Therefore, impaired microcirculation has a rheologic, functional, and structural dimension with respect to involved organs or tissues. Rheopheresis represents a specific therapeutic approach with an acute rheologic as well as chronic functional and structural effects, which was confirmed in pilot and controlled clinical studies for several organ systems. Data from 2 controlled clinical trials are available for the safe and effective treatment in patients with age-related macular degeneration.