The aim of the work was to study the possibility of development, clinical picture and outcome of rhabdomyolysis (R) caused by physical activity in young conscript personnel. It included 141 men aged 18-25 years. Group I was comprised of 48 patients treated in a military hospital, group 2 consisted of 98 healthy conscripts examined before and 12 days after regular physical exercises. General clinical examination was supplemented by measuring blood CPK. LDH, AST, ALT, and myoglobin levels. Erroneous diagnosis was made in 32 cases of group 1.37 (77.08%) subjects fell ill within the first month of service, the main symptoms being myalgia, muscular tissue compaction, and brown urine. Renal dysfunction occurred in 31 (61.58%) patients. Acute renal insufficiency with oligo/anuria developed in 9 (18.75%) patients and was treated by hemodialysis. All patients had elevated CPK, LDH, AST, ALT levels. CPK increased to 98050.0 +/- 12245. 1 U/l vs 300.4 +/- 57.3 U/l in control. All patients recovered In group 2 there were no cases of R but 29 (31.2%) subjects suffered myalgia and 84 (90.32%) had elevated CPC levels (up to 759 +/- 172.6 U/l on the average). Physical activity in servicemen may cause R with the highest risk of its development during the first month after conscription, i.e. in the period of adaptation. This finding should be taken into account in the organization of medical control of the subscripts' health.